British Cities and the Industrial Revolution

British Cities and the Industrial Revolution - British...

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British Cities and the Industrial Revolution 32. The main part of the industrial revolution in Britain took place between 1750 and 1850. Before 1750 Britain had had a mainly agricultural country. By 1850 the economy was based on industry and factory production. 33. Causes of the industrial revolution. Why did the industrial revolution take place in Europe/England before it took place anywhere else? This is a very complex question and it was the result of many factors. Here I will list some of the important theories which have been put forward by various scholars over the years. (a) Probably the most famous writer on capitalism was Karl Marx. He presented an economic theory of capitalism. In general Marx believed that the economy, and especially labor relations, determined the rest of social organization. (The economic infrastructure determined the social and ideological superstructure.) He argued that society develops through successive 'modes of production' with different kinds of labor relations: primitive communist societies, slave societies, feudal societies, capitalist societies, socialist societies and fully developed communist societies. Capitalism resulted from the contradictions in feudalism, and the breakup of the feudal systems of land ownership and labor relations. This kind of argument has been developed in the case of Europe by Bray, Macfarlane and others. (b) Francesca Bray, a professor at the University of California, has argued that agriculture was very important. She has written about the differences between rice and wheat. Rice can be grown on smaller pieces of land, and it is possible to put more water, labor and fertilizer on the land to produce more rice. Wheat requires more land. The main way of making land more productive for wheat is to plough it, but this requires animals or machines which are expensive. So wheat
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course SCIE SYG2000 taught by Professor Bernhardt during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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British Cities and the Industrial Revolution - British...

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