What is the hierarchy of life in terms of, cells, organ systems, organisms, tissues, organs, chemicals and
Chemicals, Subcellular organelles, cells, Tissue, organs, organ systems, organisms
How do anabolism and catabolism contribute to metabolism?
Metabolism is the sum of the chemical activites (anabolism and catabolism) of the organism
What are the roles of hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances in living things?
They take on different roles, like in the phospholipids bilayer, these regions helps regular molecules going in
and out. Hydrophillic interactions allow for substances (sugar) to readily dissolve in a water solution.
Hydrophobic interactions allow for interactions like oil and water.
Why are minerals important?
Some of the important biological reactions start with minerals
What are the importance of…
First Source of energy, energy storage molecules, structural components.
Aldhyde on end, ketone in middle ( C double bond 0)
Sugars are hydrophilic. And water soluble.
(Condensation) Dehydration Synthesis
- molecule of water Is removed during this covalent bond
- Addition of water that dissociate the polypeptide bond.
molecules that are giant, like proteins and nucleic acids
small organic molecules
Glucose monomers are joined by alpha 1,4 bonds
- Storage molecule, glucose molecules joint at Alpha-1,4
- glucose subunits joined by alpha-1,4 bonds are stored as an energy source in animal
- structural carbohydrate, accounts for 50% of carbon in plants.
Not true polymers, they are of indefinite length. Not water soluble
connect by ester
- 3 fatty acids linked together by 1 glycerol by ester bonds; Storage of fatty acids
- solid at room temp; maximum number of hydrogen
- liquid at room temp: with double bond that kinks. Therefore these isn’t a high number
of hydrogen atoms. Mono- only 1 double bond. Poly- more then 1 double bond.
Trans Fatty Acids
- techniqually unsaturated.
. but show properties of saturated, because no kink at
- group of lipids that are amipathic, they have a hydrophobic end and an hydrophilic
end. Composed of a glycerol attached at one end to two fatty acids and ther end to phosphate group
linked to an organic compound like chlorine. Form bilayers in water.
- consist of carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings: 3 have 6 carbon atoms while the
has 5 carbon atoms. (cholesterol, cortisol)
- structural components in animal cell membranes
Function of Steriods
- structural component, also regulates metabolism
Proteins incld. Enzymes
Polymers (monomers –amino acids): flexible, shape. The amino acids in a polymer are joined together by the
peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid.