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BioStudyNotes - Biology 101 What is the hierarchy of life...

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What is the hierarchy of life in terms of, cells, organ systems, organisms, tissues, organs, chemicals and subcellular organelles? Chemicals, Subcellular organelles, cells, Tissue, organs, organ systems, organisms How do anabolism and catabolism contribute to metabolism? Metabolism is the sum of the chemical activites (anabolism and catabolism) of the organism What are the roles of hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances in living things? They take on different roles, like in the phospholipids bilayer, these regions helps regular molecules going in and out. Hydrophillic interactions allow for substances (sugar) to readily dissolve in a water solution. Hydrophobic interactions allow for interactions like oil and water. Why are minerals important? Some of the important biological reactions start with minerals What are the importance of… Carbohydrates First Source of energy, energy storage molecules, structural components. Aldhyde on end, ketone in middle ( C double bond 0) Sugars are hydrophilic. And water soluble. (Condensation) Dehydration Synthesis - molecule of water Is removed during this covalent bond Hydrolysis - Addition of water that dissociate the polypeptide bond. Macromolecule- molecules that are giant, like proteins and nucleic acids Monomer- small organic molecules Glucose monomers are joined by alpha 1,4 bonds Starch - Storage molecule, glucose molecules joint at Alpha-1,4 Glycogen - glucose subunits joined by alpha-1,4 bonds are stored as an energy source in animal tissues. Cellulose - structural carbohydrate, accounts for 50% of carbon in plants. Lipids Not true polymers, they are of indefinite length. Not water soluble Hydrophobic… connect by ester linkages. Triaclyglycerols - 3 fatty acids linked together by 1 glycerol by ester bonds; Storage of fatty acids Saturated Fats - solid at room temp; maximum number of hydrogen Unsaturated - liquid at room temp: with double bond that kinks. Therefore these isn’t a high number of hydrogen atoms. Mono- only 1 double bond. Poly- more then 1 double bond. Trans Fatty Acids - techniqually unsaturated. . but show properties of saturated, because no kink at double bond. Phospholipids - group of lipids that are amipathic, they have a hydrophobic end and an hydrophilic end. Composed of a glycerol attached at one end to two fatty acids and ther end to phosphate group linked to an organic compound like chlorine. Form bilayers in water. Steriods - consist of carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings: 3 have 6 carbon atoms while the 4 th has 5 carbon atoms. (cholesterol, cortisol) Cholesterol - structural components in animal cell membranes Function of Steriods - structural component, also regulates metabolism Proteins incld. Enzymes Polymers (monomers –amino acids): flexible, shape. The amino acids in a polymer are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid. Enzyme:
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BioStudyNotes - Biology 101 What is the hierarchy of life...

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