chapter 10

chapter 10 - Chromosomes Carriers of genetic information;...

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Chromosomes Carriers of genetic information; lie in the nucleus; colorless; made of chromatin. Know: Walther Fleming and Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri. Chromatin A material consisting of DNA and ass. proteins; consists of long, thin threads that are somewhat aggregated, so granular; during mitosis the chromatin fibers condense and the chromos become visibly distinct. Genome Composed of individual informational units called genes that control the activities of the cell and are passed onto its descendents. Human Genome Project Humans have about 25,000 genes that code for proteins. Gene Provides information needed to carry out one or more specific cell functions. Histones Facilitates chromosome packaging; have a + charge; they associate with DNA (-) b/c of its phosphate groups to form nucleosomes. Nucleosomes Units consist of a beadlike structure with 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a disc-shaped core of eight histone molecules; function like tiny spools. Scaffolding proteins Nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure. Condensin A group of proteins required for protein compaction; binds to DNA and wraps it onto coiled loops that are compacted into a mitotic or meiotic chromo. Cell cycle The stages through which a cell passes from one cell division to the next; 2 main phases: interphase and M phase. M phase Involves mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis Involving the nucleus; ensures that each new nucleus receives the same number and types of chromosomes as the original. (Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) Cytokinesis The division of the cell cytoplasm to form two cells; begins as an actomyosin contractile ring (ass. of actin and myosin filaments) Interphase Most of the cell's life in this phase; when no cell division is occurring; during interphase a cell synthesizes needed materials. G1 phase
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chapter 10 - Chromosomes Carriers of genetic information;...

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