chapter 11 Basic Principles of Heredity

chapter 11 Basic Principles of Heredity - Basic Principles...

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Basic Principles of Heredity · Heredity- the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring · Genetics- the science of heredity · Genetic variation- the differences between parents and offspring or amongst individuals of a population · · Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance · Hybrid- offspring of two genetically dissimilar parents · True-breeding - genetically pure · Before Mendel started his studies people believed: o All hybrid plants that are offspring of genetically pure, true-breeding parents are similar in appearance o When these hybrids mate with each other they do not breed true, their offspring show a mixture of traits · Used garden pea Pisum sativum o Easy to obtain, with several varieties o Controlled pollination is easy · Phenotype- refers to physical appearance of an organism · Characters- attributes, Mendel studied seven · Traits- heritable differences · Parental (P) generation- genetically pure individuals in Mendel’s experiment · F 1 generation- first filial generation · F 2 generation- 2 nd generation · Dominant- trait expressed · Recessive- Trait not expressed when dominant trait is present · Genes- discrete inherited particles · Alleles- alternative forms of a gene · Dominant allele- allele of dominant trait · Recessive allele- allele of recessive trait · Principle of segregation- before sexual reproduction occurs, 2 alleles carried by reproduction must become separated
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chapter 11 Basic Principles of Heredity - Basic Principles...

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