chapter 26 Kingdom Fungi

chapter 26 Kingdom Fungi - Kingdom Fungi Characteristics of...

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Kingdom Fungi Characteristics of Fungi · All are eukaryotes · Optimum pH is normally 5.6, but it can vary · All are heterotrophs · Most fungi cell walls consist of complex carbohydrates including chitin, a polymer that consists of subunits of a nitrogen-containing sugar · Resistant to breakdown by most microorganisms · Component of the external skeletons of insects and other arthropods · Mycologists- biologists who study fungi · Yeasts- Simplest fungi, unicellular with a round or oval shape · Molds- most common fungi. Body plan consists of long, threadlike filaments called hyphae · Growth occurs at tips, and hyphae grow into and infiltrates food sources, then absorbs nutrients through its very large surface area · First develops from a unicellular spore. As they grow, form a tangled mass or tissue like aggregation known as mycelium · Hyphae are divided by cross walls called septa into individual cells containing one or more nuclei o Many septa are perforated by a pore that may be large enough to permit organelles to flow from cell to cell o Coenocytic fungi lack septa, and in these nuclear division is not followed by cytoplasmic division, so it is one elongated, multinucleated, giant cell · Some fungi can alternate between a yeast phase and a phase in which they produce hyphae · Fungi usually reproduces by microscopic spores , reproductive cells that can develop into new organisms · Non motile, dispersed by wind, water, or animal · Reproduce asexually or sexually · Usually produced on specialized aerial hyphae or in fruiting structures and above ground to disperse easily · Sporangia- structures in which spores are produced · Fruiting bodies- aerial hyphae of some fungi produce spores in large, complex reproductive structures · Conidiophores- are specialized hyphae that produce asexual spores called conidia · Plasmogamy- hyphae of two genetically compatible mating types come together and their cytoplasm fuses, resulting in two haploid nuclei one from each fungus · Karyogamy- two haploid nuclei fuse; results in a cell containing a diploid nucleus known as a zygote nucleus · Dikaryotic- hyphae that contain two genetically distinct, sexually compatible nuclei within each cell, n + n · Monokaryotic- hyphae that contain only one nucleus per cell · Fungi communicate chemically by secreting signaling molecules called pheromones , binds with the compatible receptor on a different mating type Fungal Diversity
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· Opisthokonts- fungi, animals, and a few protists, including the choanoflagellates, form this monophyletic group with genetic and structural similarities · Fungi have plate like cristae in their mitochondria · Flagellate cells propel themselves with a single posterior flagellum · Five phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota · Microsporidia are in the Zygomycetes
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chapter 26 Kingdom Fungi - Kingdom Fungi Characteristics of...

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