chapter 32 Plant Structure

chapter 32 Plant Structure - Plant Structure, Growth, and...

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Plant Structure, Growth, and Differentiation Plant Structure and Life Span · Herbaceous are non woody plants, in temperate climates aerial parts die back to the grown after growing season, while woody plants persist · Woody plants have hard, lignified secondary tissue · Annuals- herbaceous plants (corn, geranium, marigold) that grow, reproduce and die in 1 year or less · Biennials- 2 years to complete life cycle (carrot, Queen Anne’s lace, cabbage, foxglove), produce extra carbs which they store and use in their 2 nd year · Perennials- herbaceous & woody, can live over 2 years, herbaceous (iris, rhubarb, onion, asparagus) die back each winter while roots stay dormant · All woody plants are perennials and can live for thousands of years · Some are deciduous- shed eaves before winter & produce new stems with leaves in the spring, some are evergreen , shed leaves over long period of time, so some leaves are always present · Dormancy- organism reduces its metabolic state to a minimum level to survive unfavorable conditions · Life history strategies- characteristic features of an organism’s life cycle, particularly as they relate to its survival and successful reproduction · Perennials with long life spans survive well in crowded areas because they can take root in one spot and produce seeds for years · Short lived, small plants have reproductive advantages in harsh environments, because they have little competition and can mature and reproduce quickly The Plant Body · Root system- underground · Shoot system- aboveground · Plant cells organized into tissues- group of cells that form a structural and functional unit. Simple has one type of cell while complex have 2 or more · Ground tissue system- majority of plant body, involved in photosynthesis, storage and support · Vascular tissue system- intricate conducting system that extends throughout the plant body, responsible for conduction of various substances including water, dissolved minerals, and food (dissolved sugar) · Dermal tissue system- covering for plant body · Roots, stems, leaves, flower parts, fruits are organs because each is composed of all 3 tissue systems, tissues are continuous throughout the plant Tissue Systems, Tissues, and Cell Types Tissue System Tissue Cell Types Main Functions Ground tissue system Parenchyma tissue Parenchyma cells
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Storage, secretion, photosynthesis Collenchyma tissue Collenchyma cells Support Sclerenchyma tissue Sclerenchyma cells (sclereids or fibers) Support, strength Vascular tissue system Xylem Tracheids Conduction of water and nutrient materials, support Vessel elements Conduction of water and nutrient materials, support Xylem parenchyma cells Storage Fibers (schlerenchyma cells) Support, strength Phloem Sieve tube elements
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chapter 32 Plant Structure - Plant Structure, Growth, and...

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