Biology Exam1 chapter 1

Biology Exam1 chapter 1 - Biology Exam#1 Chapter 1 A View...

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Biology Exam #1 Chapter 1: A View of Life Pg. 2: Characteristics of Life Characteristics of Life: organization, growth and development, self-regulated metabolism, ability to respond to stimuli, reproduction, and adaption to environmental change Organisms are composed of cells o Cells: basic units of life Cell theory: New cells are formed by division o Unicellular: single celled o Multicellular: multicelled o Plasma membrane: separates cell from outside world Regulates passage of materials o DNA: contain genetic instructions and information o Organelles: internal structures to perform specialized functions o Prokaryotic cells: no nucleus or membrane enclosed structures o Eukaryotic cells: contain a nucleus, membranes Organisms grow and develop o Biological growth: increase in size of individual cells and/or in number of cells May cause body proportions to change o Some organisms grow forever, some stop after some time o Development: all changes that take place during an organism’s life Organisms regulate their metabolic processes o Metabolism: sum of all chemical activities; occur constantly Chemical reactions and energy transformations o Homeostasis: appropriate, balanced internal environment Homeostasis mechanisms: cell processes to regulate homeostasis Organisms respond to stimuli o Stimuli: physical or chemical changes in internal or external environment Examples: color, intensity, direction of light, changes in temperature, pressure, sound, changes in chemical composition of surrounding soil, air, water o Simple organisms: entire individual is sensitive to stimuli May move away Amoeboid movement: slow oozing of cell Cilia: move by beating tiny, hair-like extensions of cell Flagella: longer cilia; bacteria move by rotating it Sessile: do not move as adults o Attach to surface o Still have cilia beating water around to get nutrients Organisms reproduce o Asexual reproduction: perpetuate themselves; splitting in half to form two new ones One individual gives rise to two or more offspring that are similar to the parent o Sexual reproduction: fusion of egg and sperm cell to form fertilized egg Populations evolve and become adapted to the environment o Adaptations: inherited characteristics that enhance an organism’s ability to survive in a particular environment
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o Ability of population to evolve over many generations and adapt to its environment equips it to survive in a changing world o Adaptations could be structural, physiological, biochemical, behavioral, or combination Pg. 6: Levels of Biological Organization Hierarchy of biological organization exists where at every level, structure and function are precisely coordinated. Reductionism: learning about a structure by studying its parts
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Biology Exam1 chapter 1 - Biology Exam#1 Chapter 1 A View...

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