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Biology Exam1 chapter 3

Biology Exam1 chapter 3 - Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life...

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Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Pg. 46: Carbon Atoms and Molecules Carbon can make 4 covalent bonds. Carbon is often the backbone of large molecules because C-C bonds are strong. Hydrocarbon: organic compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen, can exist unbranched or branched or ringed Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures o Isomers: compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures -> different properties o Structural isomers: compounds that differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms o Geometric isomers: compounds identical in arrangement of covalent bonds but different in spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms (cis/trans) o Enantiometers: isomers that are mirror images of each other Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules o Hydrocarbons lack distinct charged regions Insoluble in water and tend to cluster together through hydrophobic interactions Hydrocarbons interact weakly with water o Functional groups: groups of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations in which the compound participates Replaces one hydrogen in an organic molecule Predict chemical behavior if you know functional group Hydroxyl group: polar; hydrophilic Carbonyl group: polar; hydrophilic Amino group: nonpolar; weakly basic Phosphate group: nonpolar; weakly acidic Sulfhydryl group: nonpolar; stabilize internal structure of proteins Many biological molecules are polymers o Macromolecules: large molecules consisting of thousands of atoms o Polymers: chains of monomers o Monomer: small organic compound o Hydrolysis: reaction that degrades polymers to monomers; produces water o Condensation: reaction that covalently links monomers; requires water Pg. 50: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: sugars, starches, cellulose Monosaccharide: typically 3-7 carbon atoms o If carbonyl is at end then aldehyde o If carbonyl is anywhere else then ketone o Hexoses: six carbon sugars o Glucose: most abundant monosaccharide that is used as an energy source in most organisms Used in synthesis of other types of compounds such as amino acids and fatty acids Important in metaboloism o Glucose and fructose are structural isomers o Glucose and galactose are enantiomers
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Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide units o
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