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Unformatted text preview: been at the height of the Roman empire, around 100-200 AD. 2. There were various types of pre-industrial economic systems. Apart from intensive farming, their impact on the environment was limited: ecosystems were self-sustaining. (a) hunters and gatherers (foragers) -- now very few are left, though until recently they were to be found in marginal areas like the Kalahari desert in southern Africa, the Congo forest basin, Australia and the Arctic. (c) pastoralists looking after livestock (camels, cows sheep, goats) -- often lived alongside farmers (b) shifting cultivators -- still to be found in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and less populated parts of Southeast Asia (d) intensive agriculture permanent cultivation involving modification of the environment through irrigation, and/or the use of organic fertilizers, such as human or animal manure and plant waste...
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- Fall '10