Biology Exam1 chapter 7

Biology Exam1 chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Energy and Metabolism...

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Chapter 7: Energy and Metabolism Pg. 153: Biological Work Matter: anything that has mass and takes space Energy: the capacity to do work, which is any change in the state or motion of matter; expressed in units of kilojoules Pg. 153: Biological Work Organisms carry out conversations between potential energy and kinetic energy o Kinetic energy: energy of motion o Potential energy: capacity to do work as a result of position or state o Chemical energy: potential energy stored in chemical bonds o Mechanical energy: performs work by moving matter Pg. 154: The Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics: study of energy and its transformations System: refer to an object that is being studied Surroundings: rest of universe Closed system: does not exchange energy with surroundings Open system: exchanges energy with surroundings (biological systems are open) The total energy in the universe does not change o First law of thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can be transferred or converted from one form to another Organisms cannot create the energy they require in order to live must capture energy from the environment and transform it to a form that can be used for biological work The entropy of the universe is increasing o Second law of thermodynamics: when energy is converted from one form to another, some usable energy is converted to heat that disperses into the surroundings Amount of usable energy available to do work in the universe decreases over time Entropy: S: measure of disorder No process is 100% efficient because some energy is dispersed as heat Pg. 155: Energy and Metabolism Metabolism: sum of all the chemical activities taking place in an organism Anabolism: various pathways in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler substances (linking of amino acids to form proteins)
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Biology Exam1 chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Energy and Metabolism...

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