Biology Exam1 chapter 8

Biology Exam1 chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Cells Make ATP Energy...

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Chapter 8: Cells Make ATP: Energy – Releasing Pathways Pg. 172: REDOX Reactions Aerobic respiration: form of cellular respiration requiring molecular oxygen o Nutrients are catabolized to carbon dioxide and water o Glucose becomes oxidized and oxygen becomes reduced Pg. 173: The Four Stages of Aerobic Respiration Four stages: Glycolysis (cytosol); Formation of acetyl coenzyme A [pyruvate processing] (mitochondrion); Citric acid cycle (mitochondrion); Electron Transport and chemiosmosis (mitochondrion) [most ATP] Dehydrogenations: reactions in which two hydrogen atoms are removed from the substrate and transferred to NAD+ or FAD Decarboxylations: reactions in which part of a carboxyl group (-COOH) is removed from the substrate as a molecule of CO2 In glycolysis, glucose yields two pyruvates o Does not require oxygen o The first phase of glycolysis requires an investment of ATP Two separate phosphorylation reactions: phosphate group is transferred from ATP to the sugar creating 6 carbon sugar with two phosphate groups (fructose 1,6 biphosphate) Broken into two 3 carbon molecules (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate: G3P) Summary: Glucose + 2ATP 2 G3P + 2 ADP o The second phase of glycolysis yields NADH and ATP Energy capture phase Each G3P is oxidized by the removal of 2 electrons (2 hydrogens) Each electron binds with NAD+ to create 2 NADH Intermediate step: another phosphate is added on to each G3P (Substrate level phosphorylation) Both phosphates are taken off of both G3Ps via 2 ADP per G3P Summary: 2G3P + 2NAD + + 4ADP 2pyruvates + 2NADH + 4ATP o Net Yield of Glycolysis: 2 ATP and 2 NADH Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA o Pyruvate molecules enter mitochondria, where they are converted to acetyl coenzyme A o
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Biology Exam1 chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Cells Make ATP Energy...

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