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Biology Exam1 chapter 10

Biology Exam1 chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Chromosomes Mitosis...

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Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Pg. 212: Eukaryotic Chromosomes Chromosomes: major carriers of genetic material in eukaryotes that lie in the cell nucleus Chromatin: material consisting of DNA and associated proteins; chromosomes are made of it; long, thin threads DNA is organized into informational units called genes DNA is packaged in a highly organized way in chromosomes o Eukaryotes have a lot of DNA in nucleus o Histones: proteins that facilitate chromosome packaging o Nucleosomes: positively charged histones associated with DNA; function like spools, preventing DNA strands from becoming tangled o Scaffolding proteins: nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure Chromosome number and informational content differ among species o Every individual species has a number of chromosomes in nuclei Pg. 215: The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cell Cycle: stages through which a cell passes from one cell division to the next; consists of interphase and M phase M Phase: involves mitosis and cytokinesis Chromosomes duplicate during interphase o Interphase: time when no cell division is occurring Synthesize needed materials (proteins, lipids, etc) Growing o G 1 phase: Gap phase 1; growth and normal metabolism (longest phase) At the end, enzymes for DNA synthesis become activated o S phase: Synthesis phase: DNA replicates and histone proteins are synthesized o G 2
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