chapter 3 review

chapter 3 review - Lecture 4: Chapter 3 The Chemistry of...

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Lecture 4: Chapter 3 – The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Carbon is central component of organic compounds Carbon atoms join with one another or other atoms to form large molecules with a chains) Most are rings A. Isomers compounds 1. Structural Isomers different covalent arrangement of their atoms ex., Ethanol (C 2 H 6 2 H 6 O) 2. Genetic Isomers (cistrans isomers) different spatial arrangements identical covalent bonds ex., trans2butene 3. Enantiomers mirror images central carbon is asymmetrical because it is bonded to 4 bonded groups because of their 3D structure, the 2 figures cannot be superimposed no matter how they are rotated B. Hydrocarbons Organic nonpolar & hydrophobic – insoluble in water; tend to cluster together ex. Methyl group RCH 3 Nonpolar hydrocarbon
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Nonreactive groups which a compound participates hydrophilic – associates strongly with polar water molecules 1. Hydroxyl R– OH; polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons Eg. Ethanol (ethane gas; ethanolliquid) Polar groups make it soluble in water 2. Carbonyl Carbon atom attracted to an O atom by a double covalent bond Polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons a. Aldehyde ( R–CHO) carbonyl group at end of carbon skeleton C is bonded to at least 1 H atom eg formaldehyde b. Ketone ( R–CO–R) an internal carbonyl group carbon is bonded to 2 other carbons eg acetone 3. Carboxyl weakly acidic; essential constituents of amino acids a. Nonionized ( R–COOH) consists of a carbon atom joined by double covalent bond to an b. Ionized ( R–COO+ H + ) 2 electronegative O atoms in close proximity can cause H to + D. Acidic & Basic Groups
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1. Basic accepts a H + becomes (+) charged amino group 2. Acidic release H + becomes () charged carboxyl 3. Amino ( R–NH 2 ) Polar; weakly basic since it can accept an H + components a. Nonionized includes Nitrogen atom covalently linked to 2 Hydrogen atoms b. Ionized ( R–NH 3 +
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chapter 3 review - Lecture 4: Chapter 3 The Chemistry of...

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