{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

chapter 3 review

chapter 3 review - Lecture 4 Chapter 3 The Chemistry of...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Lecture 4: Chapter 3 – The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds I. Carbon Atoms & Molecules Carbon is central component of organic compounds Carbon atoms join with one another or other atoms to form large molecules with a wide variety of shapes (chains, double bonds, branched chains, rings, joined rings & chains) Most are rings A. Isomers compounds with the same molecular formulas but different structures & properties 1. Structural Isomers different covalent arrangement of their atoms ex., Ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) & Dimethyl Ether (C 2 H 6 O) 2. Genetic Isomers (cistrans isomers) different spatial arrangements identical covalent bonds ex., trans2butene & cis2butene 3. Enantiomers mirror images central carbon is asymmetrical because it is bonded to 4 bonded groups because of their 3D structure, the 2 figures cannot be superimposed no matter how they are rotated B. Hydrocarbons Organic compounds consisting of Carbon & Hydrogen only nonpolar & hydrophobic – insoluble in water; tend to cluster together ex. Methyl group RCH 3 Nonpolar hydrocarbon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nonreactive C. Polar & Ionic Functional Groups groups of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions & associations in which a compound participates hydrophilic – associates strongly with polar water molecules 1. Hydroxyl R– OH; polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons Eg. Ethanol (ethane gas; ethanolliquid) Polar groups make it soluble in water 2. Carbonyl Carbon atom attracted to an O atom by a double covalent bond Polar because electronegative oxygen attracts covalent electrons a. Aldehyde ( R–CHO) carbonyl group at end of carbon skeleton C is bonded to at least 1 H atom eg formaldehyde b. Ketone ( R–CO–R) an internal carbonyl group carbon is bonded to 2 other carbons eg acetone 3. Carboxyl weakly acidic; essential constituents of amino acids a. Nonionized ( R–COOH) consists of a carbon atom joined by double covalent bond to an O atom, & by a single bond to an O atom, which is attached to an H atom b. Ionized ( R–COO+ H + ) 2 electronegative O atoms in close proximity can cause H to be stripped of its electron & release an H + D. Acidic & Basic Groups
Image of page 2
1. Basic accepts a H + becomes (+) charged amino group 2. Acidic release H + becomes () charged carboxyl & phosphate groups 3. Amino ( R–NH 2 ) Polar; weakly basic since it can accept an H + components of amino acids & nucleic acids a. Nonionized includes Nitrogen atom covalently linked to 2 Hydrogen atoms b. Ionized ( R–NH 3 + ) formed as an ionized group with 1 unit positively charged 4. Phosphate
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern