chapter 4 review

chapter 4 review - General Biology Lecture 1: Chapter 4...

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General Biology Lecture 1: Chapter 4 – Organization of the Cell I. Cell division) B. Viruses are acellular because they cannot independently perform metabolic activities C. Cell Theory – provides consistent explanation for all verifiable data relating to living things 2. All cells come from other cells. All living cells have evolved from a common ancestor Cells 1. homeostasis – appropriate internal environment 2. Plasma membrane surrounds the cell separates cell from external environment allows exchange of materials with environment allows chemical composition of cell to be different from that outside the cell 1. Measurement ( mm) millimeter = 1/1,000 of meter = 10 3 meter ( μm) micrometer = 1/1,000,000 of meter = 10 6 meter ( nm) nanometer = 1/1,000,000,000 of meter = 10 9 meter ( mm) millimeter = 1/1,000 of meter ( μm) micrometer = 1/1,000 of millimeter ( nm) nanometer = 1/1,000 of micrometer 2. Surface to Volume Ratio ratio
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of plasma membrane (surface area) to cell’s volume regulates critical factor in determining cell size as cell becomes larger, its volume increases at a greater rate than its surface area, decreasing surfacetovolume ratio a activities microvilli, projections of plasma membrane, increase surface area for absorbing nutrients Ex. Nerve cells need to communicate with each other; have long extensions Ex 2. – Epithelial cells stacked on one another become “barrier cell” e.g. skin Ex. 3. – Flagella allows sperm to “swim” III. Methods For Studying Cells A. Microscopes 1. Light microscopes – minimal resolution (max is 1,000X) a. Phase contrast light microscope – can be used to view stained or living cells, but at relatively low resolution beams have very short wavelengths a. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) – produces a highresolution image that can be greatly magnified looks for a specific reaction electron beam passes through the specimen resulting
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter 4 review - General Biology Lecture 1: Chapter 4...

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