chapter 13 review

chapter 13 review - Lecture 22 Chapter 13 Gene Expression...

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Lecture 22 Chapter 13 – Gene Expression I. Discovery of the GeneProtein Relationship A. Evidence that Genes Specify Protein Structure 1. Archibald Garrod hypothesized that the genetic disease alkaptonuria was caused by a gene mutation that results in the loss of an enzyme that oxidizes homogentistic acid B. OneGene, One Enzyme Hypothesis reactions that produce essential molecules in the Orange mold Neurospora 2. They exposed Neurospora spores to Xrays or UV radiation to induce mutant strains 3. They also identified strains that carried a chemical essential for growth, the amino acid arginine gene only affected 1 enzyme 5. Gene – DNA nucleotide sequence that contains information needed to produce specific RNA or polypeptide product II. Information Flow from DNA to Protein: An Overview A. RNA Structure 1. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is usually single stranded 2. The pentose sugar in RNA is ribose, which has a hydroxyl group at the 2’ position 3. The pyrimidine base uracil substitutes for thymine and forms 2 hydrogen bonds with adenine 4. Formed from nucleotide subunits covalently joined by 5’3’ linkages to form an alternating sugarphosphate backbone 5. Synthesized from DNA template strand b. RNA synthesized in 5’→3’ direction; DNA template read in 5’→3’ direction Transcription Translation 6. Information flows as follows: DNA→→→RNA→→→Protein 7. Upstream a. toward 5’ end of mRNA sequence or 3’ end of template DNA 8. Downstream a. towards 3’ end of RNA or 5’ end of template DNA B. Types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) a. specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein b. each codon, a sequence of 3 consecutive bases, specifies 1 amino acid c. production catalyzed by enzyme RNA polymerase II
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter 13 review - Lecture 22 Chapter 13 Gene Expression...

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