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chapter 24 review

chapter 24 review - Lecture 10 Chapter 24 Prokaryotes...

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Lecture 10 – Chapter 24 – Prokaryotes & Viruses A. Prokaryotic Cell archea & bacteria have a plasma membrane generally live in a hypotonic environment Cell wall made of peptidoglycan – amino sugars linked by polypeptides No organelles (no chloroplasts, mitochondria, Golgi, E.R.) Circular/ Naked DNA no protein coat – no histones located in nucleoid region bacterial chromosome Plasmid DNA that encodes for catabolic enzymes resistant to antibiotics Ribosomes protein synthesis; free in cytoplasm Storage vacuoles store lipids, phosphate compounds, carbohydrates, glycogen Shape spherical: coccus (1), diplococcus (2), streptococcus (long chain), staphylococcus (irregular) rod: bacillus spiral: spirillum (rigid), spirochete (flexible) comma shaped: vibrio Cell Wall Structure Gram positive
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– bacteria that absorb & retain crystal violet Gram stain have a thick layer of peptidoglycan molecules held together by amino acids Gram negative – bacteria that do not retain the stain when rinsed with alcohol have a thin layer of peptidoglycan covered by an outer membrane cell wall is made up of thin peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane, which has lipoproteins & polysaccharides Antibiotics such as penicillin interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis Gram (+) cells inhibited more; Gram (–) cells more resistant Capsule slime layer that surrounds the cell wall may provide the cell with added protection against phagocytosis tend to be resistant to white blood cells Pili protein structure that helps bacteria adhere to one another or attach to certain surfaces Flagella helps prokaryotes move Motor/ basal body anchors flagellum into the cell wall by discshaped plates bacterium uses energy from ATP to pump protons out of cell diffusion of these protons back into the cell powers the motor Hook connects basal body to filament Filament extends into the outside environment Reproduction Prokaryotes
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are asexual & most reproduce by binary fission occurs in about 20 minutes the circular DNA replicates
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