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chapter 28 review

chapter 28 review - Lecture 14 Chapter 28 The Plant Kingdom...

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Lecture 14 – Chapter 28 – The Plant Kingdom: Seed Plants; Chapter 36: Reproduction in Flowering Plants A. Plants developed certain characteristics 1. Elimination of free living Gametophyte – Gametophyte stage dependent on sporophyte stage 2. Elimination of swimming sperm – sperm now travels by wind, animal, insect, etc. 3. Greater protection for young sporophyte (seed) seed replaces spore as primary means of dispersal success rate is greater with the seed because it carries a multicelled sporophyte seed also contains food supply seed has a hard, multicelled seed coat & can survive for long periods of time at a reduced metabolic rate Gymnosperms – seed producing plant that has naked/unprotected seed (no ovary wall) Phylum Coniferophyta (pine tree) produces heterospores rather than homospores Homospores – spores are all similar; produces gametophyte with both antheridia & archegonia characteristic of bryophytes and most ferns Heterospores 1. microspore – produces microgametophyte (male) 2. megaspore – produces megagametophyte (female) sperm travels from microgametophyte to megagametophyte to produce sporophyte, & seed develops around it megasporangium undergoes meiosis & produces megaspore, which leads to development of megagametophyte, which produces egg in archegonia egg is fertilized which produces zygote, which divides to form embryonic sporophyte outer covering (integument) of megasporangium will harden & form the seed coat characteristic of gymnosperms and angiosperms Pine Life Cycle
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sporophyte generation (2n) – dominant stage reproductive structure is the cone 2 types of cones: small (male) & large (female) Male Cone believed to be a modified leaf that produces spores (sporophyll) microsporocyte (2n) undergoes meiosis to become microspore (n) microspores undergo meiosis & cytokinesis to become extremely reduced gametophytes (pollen grains) each consists of 4 cells: 2 prothallial cells, 1 generative cell, & 1 tube cell air current carries microgametophytes with it Female Cone believed
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