gen bio Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life

gen bio Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life - E.g carboxyl and...

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Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Carbon is the central component of organic compounds Isomers - Structural isomers o Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms, and often properties due to functional groups - Geometric (stereo) isomers (cis-trans-2-butene) o Have identical covalent bonds but differ in the order in which groups are arranged in space - Enantiomers o Mirror images of one another o The central carbon is asymmetrical because it is bonded to four different groups o Because of their 3-D structure, the two figures cannot be superimposed upon each other Hydrocarbons - Organic compounds o Carbon and hydrogen o Hydrophobic o Properties are a result of their functional groups - Non polar o Methyl group R-CH3 Very non-reactive - Polor groups make the molecule soluble in water (hydrophilic) Acidic and Basic Groups - Basic o Accepts a hydrogen ion o Becomes positively charged E.g. amino group - Acidic o Releases hydrogen ions o Becomes negatively charged
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Unformatted text preview: E.g carboxyl and phosphate groups Summary- Hydrogens o Nonpolar and hydrophobic- Properties depend on functional groups o Hydroxyl and carbonyl groups (polar) o Carboxyl and phosphate groups (polar, acidic) o Amino groups (basic) Polymers and macromolecules- Polymers o Long chain and linked monomers o Linked through condensation reactions- Macromolecules o Large polymers o Polysaccharids, proteins, DNA o Broken down by hydrolysis reactions Condensation and Hydeolysis- In condensation reactions: as monomers are added, water molecules is released therefore also called dehydration synthesis- In hydrolysis reactions: water molecules is consumes- hydrogen from water molecule attaches to one monomer, OH- from water molecule attaches to adjacent monomer Carbohydrates- Approx ratio o 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen o Exist naturally in ring formation- Monosaccharides o Simple sugar (3-7 Cs) Polysaccharids- Repeating units of simple sygars...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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gen bio Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life - E.g carboxyl and...

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