General Biology Exam 2 Notes

General Biology Exam 2 Notes - General Biology Exam 2 Notes...

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Unformatted text preview: General Biology Exam 2 Notes Topics I. Prokaryotes and Origin of Life II. Protist III. Fungi IV. Colonization of Land V. Seed Plants VI. Reproduction VII. Plant Anatomy VIII. Plant Nutrition IX. Transport X. Hormone Control I Prokaryotes and Origin of Life Biodiversity o All living things that exist on the planet o 1.7 million species defined and studied o 4-100 million species not identified yet Systematics o Study of biodiversity and evolutionary relationships o Taxonomy Naming and classification of all these organisms Grouping • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species Each is referred to as a taxon Above the grouping of Kingdom is Domain Domains • Archea (archaebacteria) • Bacteria (eubacteria) • Eukarya (Eukaryotes) Kingdoms • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia Basic unit of taxonomy is a species Species share a common gene pool inherited from a common ancestor and can interbreed Binomial Nomenclature is the naming of species • Created by Linnaeus in the 18 th century • Genus (specific epithet) = descriptive term o ex: White Oak=Quercus(genus) alba(specific epithet) o White Willow= Salix alba Domains • Archea and Eubacteria are prokaryotes • Eukarya is eukaryotic • Archaea o Kingdom Archaebacteria • Eubacteria o Kingdom Eubacteria • Eukarya o Kingdom Protist o Kingdom Fungi o Kingdom Plantae o Kingdom Animalia Each kingdom has many phylum determined by Evolutionary Relationships called phylogeny o Based on Long ago(few) Evolutionary Process → Today (many) Phylogenic Tree o How to separate: Physical Characteristics: physiological characteristics Fossil Records Molecular similarity (only 10-15 years old) o Evolution: process of change of transformation of species o Occurs because of genetic variability within a species o The things that make genetic variability occur is Natural Selection by environmental pressure Origin of life o Lot of time for it to happen o 4.6 billion years ago is the age of the earth o 3.8 billion years ago had living cells o In the 800 million years in between life arose by chemical evolution o Chemical evolution Oparin and Haldane Inorganic molecules → simpler organic molecule (monomers) → spontaneously produced complex organic molecules (polymers) → spontaneously produce pre cells (protobionts) → living cells Tested by Miller and Urey to prove if the first step could occur Believed early atmosphere had • H2O • H2 • CH4 • NH3 Also first step needed energy given by • Heat from volcanic activity • Lightening from violent storms → formed amino acids • Now the atmosphere is believed to consist o CO2 o CO o N2 o CH4 o NH2 o H2O o H2S • Their experiment has been repeated with these gases to also result in all 20 amino acids • Early atmosphere did not contain oxygen (O2) 2 nd step test • Done by Fox...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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General Biology Exam 2 Notes - General Biology Exam 2 Notes...

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