STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1
A grouping of organisms either in the kingdom, phylum, class, order,
family, genus, or species is considered a taxon.
Taxonomy is an aspect of systematics.
While taxonomy just classifies
organisms, systematics studies the evolutionary relationships of the
The system of classification originally established by Linnaeus (Carl von
Linne) was an artificial classification system.
Most inclusive to least inclusive: Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
The biological species concept is when one or more populations whose
members are capable of interbreeding in nature to produce fertile
offspring and do not interbreed with members of other species. The
morphospecies concept is when members of the same species share
common morphological characteristics.
A binomen is a name consisting of two names: generic name and
A specific epithet is the second part of the name of a species;
designates a specific species belonging to that genus.
Evolution (Fig. 18-10)
An example of a character state would be the presence or absence of a
Homologous characters can be distinguished from analogous characters
because they were inherited from a common ancestor and their
similarity is based on evolutionary relationships.
characters are similar because they were used in similar ways and they
result from convergent evolution
the independent evolution of
structural or functional similarity in two or more distantly related
species, usually as a result of adaptations to similar environments.
If a classification system is entirely based on phylogeny, then the taxa
would be monophyletic.
ANIMAL DIVERSITY I AND II
-like protests discussed in 101)
A member of a diverse phylum of algae that contain the
pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, and
Mostly multicellular seaweeds
Is red because contain phycoerythrin, a phycobilin, (bile,
can absorb light in the near UV so that algae lives in
darker environment, deep water) chlorophyll