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studyguideexam1 - STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Classification-Chapter...

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STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1 Classification Chapter 23 I. Classifications systems a. A grouping of organisms either in the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, or species is considered a taxon. b. Taxonomy is an aspect of systematics. While taxonomy just classifies organisms, systematics studies the evolutionary relationships of the classified organisms. c. The system of classification originally established by Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) was an artificial classification system. d. Most inclusive to least inclusive: Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species II. The species a. The biological species concept is when one or more populations whose members are capable of interbreeding in nature to produce fertile offspring and do not interbreed with members of other species. The morphospecies concept is when members of the same species share common morphological characteristics. b. A binomen is a name consisting of two names: generic name and specific epithet. c. A specific epithet is the second part of the name of a species; designates a specific species belonging to that genus. III. Evolution (Fig. 18-10) a. An example of a character state would be the presence or absence of a wing. b. Homologous characters can be distinguished from analogous characters because they were inherited from a common ancestor and their similarity is based on evolutionary relationships. However, analogous characters are similar because they were used in similar ways and they result from convergent evolution the independent evolution of structural or functional similarity in two or more distantly related species, usually as a result of adaptations to similar environments. c. If a classification system is entirely based on phylogeny, then the taxa would be monophyletic. ANIMAL DIVERSITY I AND II I. Kingdom Protista a. ―Algae‖ (plant -like protests discussed in 101) i. Red algae 1. A member of a diverse phylum of algae that contain the pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin 2. Mostly multicellular seaweeds 3. Ecologically important 4. Is red because contain phycoerythrin, a phycobilin, (bile, can absorb light in the near UV so that algae lives in darker environment, deep water) chlorophyll
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5. Deepest living plants 6. Porphyra is a red alga used to make the wrapping of sushi. 7. It’s red when alive, the n turns green when baked. 8. Porphyra= nori, is called laver in UK, the dark green bit. ii. Brown algae 1. One of a phylum of predominantly marine algae that are multicellular and contain the pigments chlorophyll a and c, and carotenoids, including fucoxanthin. 2. Ecologically important in cooler ocean waters 3. Kelps have leaflike blades, stemlike stipes, anchoring holdfasts, gas-filled bladders 4. Are the largest protists, live in colder waters iii. Green algae 1. A member of a diverse phylum of algae that contains the same pigments as plants (chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids) 2. Cellulose in cell walls 3. Main energy reserve is starch iv.
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