The Space RaceExploring the Solar SystemThe Space Race wasn't just for manned missions. Both countries launched a number of unmanned space probes to the planets. The most famous of these were the Mariner spacecraft, a series of probes that started launching in 1962. Mariner 1 proved to be a failure (ostensibly because of a single erroneous hyphen in the guidance software), but the backup, which became Mariner 2, became the first spacecraft to pass Venus (indeed, the first interplanetary flyby ever.) Mariner 3 also failed, but Mariner 4 became the first to flyby Mars. Mariner 5 was another Venus flyby, this time with more scientific equipment. Mariners 6 and 7 went back to Mars. Mariner 8 was another failure, but 9 settled into Mars orbit, where it actually remains to this day. Mariner 10 managed to visit both Venus and Mercury in 1974 (it was the only probe to photograph the latter until MESSENGER arrived in 2008). The other famous line - the Pioneer probes. Pioneer 1, 2, 3, and 4 went to the Moon. Pioneer 6, 7,
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