Engineering lecture Western Diet-12-8-11-1

Engineering lecture Western Diet-12-8-11-1 - The Western...

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The Western Diet (Engineered Foods) Why Do We Process Foods? -Preservation -Safety -Function -Cheaper/cost -convenience
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How Do We Process Foods? -Thermal processing -evaporation -size reduction Evolution – Evolutionary Discordance -A set of environmental conditions which changes the course of evolution
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Where did the Western Diet Start? 10 000 years ago Introduction of agriculture and Food Engineering Introduction of animal husbandry
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New Food Stuff New Food Stuff 70% of our daily energy intake was unavailable prior to the industrial revolution Refined sugar Refined vegetable oil Cereals Diary products Alcohol Mixed foods, Canned Foods, Frozen Foods Cookies, pizza, soft drinks, ice cream. ..etc!!!!
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Lets Look at Unit Operations and Consequences? Lets Look at Unit Operations and Consequences? Simplest Unit Operation Size Reduction Increased Functionality i.e., starch from granule Increased shelf life i.e. sugar from sugar cane Used as ingredients i.e., vegetable oils
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Milling Separate the endosperm from the bran and germ 3.5% of our energy is from whole grains 20.4% of our energy is from refined grains
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Refined Sugar Crystalline sugar 500BC Pre 500BC honey was consumed Typical consumption <1kg per capita Post industrial revolution 6.8kg per capita Currently 69kg per capita Now there is high fructose corn syrups and other artificial sweeteners
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Refined Sugars Average American consumes 2-3 pounds of sugar each week One of sugar's major drawbacks is that it raises the insulin level, which in turn depresses the immune system. This is not something you want to take place if you want to avoid disease.
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Refined vegetable oils From 1909 to 1999 130% increase in the consumption of salad and cooking oils 140% increase in the consumption of shortening 410% increase in the consumption of margarine
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2 nd Unit Operation -- Hydrogenation Produce what was thought to be novel trans fatty acid isomers Trans elaidic acid only occurs in hydrogenated food stuff One of the food industries largest mistakes.
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Butter Vs. Margarine? More unsaturated fat in margarine More sat fat in butter -Stearic acid-the only saturated fat which does not affect your good cholesterol (primary sat fat of butter) -Palm oil has palmatic acid one of the worst sat fats . More in margarine
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Thermal Processing Commonly applied during food processing Severity of the process (amount of heat applied) is a function of both time and temperature This minimizes nutrient loss Minimizes reduction in product quality Minimizes energy consumption
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Engineering lecture Western Diet-12-8-11-1 - The Western...

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