final study guide

final study guide - ANT 2 Final study guide 1 Gifts Mauss...

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ANT 2: Final study guide 1. Gifts – Mauss article 1. Gifts link people together. People-centered. Gifts are personal. When one receives a gift, the favor must be returned 2. Gifts must be returned and gift-giving isn’t necessarily harmonious. There are competitive dimensions 3. Gift giving has economical, political, and social dimension. i.e. Ongka: pigs are social because they have a sacred and symbolic value. They are economical because people need them to survive. And whoever is able to give the most pigs holds a lot of power, making it political as well. Commodity: is an object that fills a need. It is purchased in a direct and single exchange, there is no expectation of returning the favor. It is thing-centered and impersonal. There is no relation between the buyer and the seller. 1. Commodity is made by workers who receive a wage from a capitalist 2. Commodity value is determined by an invisible source because of alienation. 3. Where commodities are dominant, money is the dominant means of exchange. NO. Gift economies don’t imply equality or social cooperation. Examples: Ongka: Gave such a big gift, no one could ever return or match it. The gift-giving was competitive and people were trying to beat or gain more political power from each other. Pot Latch: “destructive gift giving” pot latch is a gift giving ceremony by native Americans. Communities competed in gift giving and it got so competitive that villages were starving and they burned gifts in retaliation. 2. Adam Smith – Individual self-interest motivating economic action is the same as Homo Economicus: humans are rational, self interested, they want wealth, they avoid unnecessary labor and they will make judgments in order to get wealth and avoid labor. This relates to economic anthropology because it is the motif behind commodity, gift giving, potlatch, etc. 1. gift giving- the reason to give a gift, your rational and self interested so you believe you’ll get something back. You’re gaining more wealth because when you give a gift, you get back more. 2. Potlatch- you’re always trying to out due the other person so you can gain more. Invisible hand: the govt shouldn’t interfere with the market, things will work themselves out, like an invisible hand correcting things and balancing out the economy. No point in the govt trying to control the economy with different tariffs/regulations. 3. Bohannan and Tiv: 3 spheres of exchange 1. People/women 2. Prestige goods: cattle/metal bars/cloth 3. Sustenance goods: food, tools
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-You can only exchange goods that are on the same level. But you can become successful by exchanging lower goods for higher goods. But the Tiv still wanted the categories to be separate. (ie: You wouldn’t want to exchange women for food) this shows how exchanges are morally and symbolically connected. Two things of a different nature cannot be exchanged. -When money was introduced, the Tiv had to incorporate $ into their
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANT 002 taught by Professor Smith during the Winter '08 term at UC Davis.

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final study guide - ANT 2 Final study guide 1 Gifts Mauss...

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