Genetics Final Spring 2007 pg 12

Genetics Final Spring 2007 pg 12 - case of a...

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the 5’ 3’ direction. The mRNA molecule in prokaryotes begins translation before it has even completed transcription; it is translated into a polypeptide with the help of rRNA (and their respective ribosomes) and tRNAs. The 2 subunits of the ribosome sandwich around the mRNA using initiation factors to align it properly and to guide the initiator tRNA, tRNA-fMet, into the Peptidyl site. Elongation of the polypeptide then occurs with the help of elongation factors; this process adds tRNA’s into the A-site and attaches the previous amino acid to it with peptidyltransferase. Elongation is repeated until release factors allow termination to take place, which ends the protein-production process. 29. 30. Mendel’s 1 st law: Law of Segregation. Alleles of the same gene separate equally in the formation of gametes. This is shown by anaphase I of meiosis in the splitting of homologous chromosomes. This law does not hold true in the
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Unformatted text preview: case of a non-disjunction of gametes: when they fail to separate equally and one gamete is left with both homologous chromosomes and another gamete has zero from that pair. Mendel’s 2 nd Law: Law of Independent Assortment. The alleles of different genes assort independently of each other during the formation of gametes such that all allelic combinations occur at an equal frequency. This is illustrated by metaphase I of meiosis in that the sister chromatids are randomly aligned in the cell and will make random combinations of alleles in the gametes. This law does not apply for linked genes because they do not independently assort and their crossover frequency does not follow standard mendelian inheritance. 31. I 32. S 33. H 34. J 35. M 36. P 37. Q 38. O 39. B 40. A 41. K 42. L 43. R 44. 45. M 46. D 47. I 48. C 49. J 50. F 51. R 52. L 53. N 54. H 55. E 56. A 57. V 58. T 59. Q 60. D 2 4 6 8 10 6/16 5/16 4/16 3/16 2/16 1/16...
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