Chapter+1+Methods+and+2+Culture+and+Society

Chapter 1 Methods an - Methods(chap 1 Culture and Society(chap 2 Asking& Answering Sociological Questions Slide 3 Sociologists investigate

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Unformatted text preview: Methods (chap 1) Culture and Society (chap 2) Asking & Answering Sociological Questions Slide 3 Sociologists investigate social life by posing distinct questions and trying to find the answers to them by systematic research. These questions may be factual, comparative, developmental, or theoretical. All research begins from a research problem, which interests or puzzles the investigator. Statistical modeling! The Research Process Slide 4 Types of sociological questions (p. 7) 1. Factual (empirical): what and how 2. Comparative: difference in subject across social contexts 3. Developmental (trend study): linking a current phenomenon to historical factors 4. Theoretical: interpreting the answers to the empirical questions Sociological Questions Slide 6 What are the circumstances in which minority groups live? How can mass starvation exist in a world that is far wealthier than it has ever been? Is the family beginning to disintegrate as an institution? Others? Sociological Questions Three major research methods In Sociology we use three main methods ~ • Survey (quantitative) • Ethnography (qualitative) • Experiments Survey (p. 25) How are effective surveys conducted? • Population – consists of all those people with the characteristics that the researcher wants to study. • Sample – a limited number of cases drawn from the larger population. The sample must be carefully selected if it is to have the same basic characteristics as the population. – If it is not representative –we cannot make generalizations Samples • How are representative samples selected? – RANDOM SAMPLE • Simple random sample • Stratified Random sample – Convenience Sample – Snowball Sample Samples • How is information gathered in surveys? – Questionnaire – Interview – Closed-ended questions • How would you rate your health? – Very good, good , fair, poor – Open-ended questions • How would you say you are feeling today? Why do you think you feel like that? Qualitative Research Methods • Some aspects of social reality can be revealed best through non-quantitative (qualitative) research methods – Field Research – case studies, focus groups, ethnography – Subjective Approach – • Ethnomethodology – the study of processes people develop and use in the understanding of routine behaviours expected of themselves and others in everyday life. – Through observing others and via trial and error – ppl develop a Field Research - Ethnography (p. 24) • In-dept information • Small groups • Trust Issue • PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION Experiments (p. 28) • Control group • Experimental group Historical Research • Utilizes documentary sources • Analyzes the origins of sociological phenomena Two additional methods: • Investigates trends across time and space • Examines how social structures differ within different social contexts Comparative Research (pp....
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course 202 202 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 1 Methods an - Methods(chap 1 Culture and Society(chap 2 Asking& Answering Sociological Questions Slide 3 Sociologists investigate

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