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FINAL - Organ systems of flowering plants When a cell...

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Organ systems of flowering plants When a cell divides, the daughter cells grow. And they may differentiate (specialize), depending especially on where they are located during development. As the stem grows up it leaves behind the undifferentiated cells and those cells will mature into specific cell types. Differentiated cells contribute to 3 tissue systems Dermal tissue (epidermis) o The epidermis in the picture is the white part. o Generally a single cell layer that covers the plant Only a single cell layer thick separates the insides of the plant from the outside. o Absorption in the root system o Water retention in shoot system, aided by waxy cuticle. o The plant has to deal with a lot of water loss. The dermal cells give off a waxy layer called a cuticle to help prevent water loss from those areas of the plant. o The root cells that make up the epidermis of the root do not contain that waxy material. The skin of the root is used to take up water. There is a waxy layer on the shoot to help prevent water loss. Vascular tissue o It is kind of sort of the same as our arteries and veins. o On the picture the vascular tissue is showed by the purple areas. o Xylem : transports water and dissolved minerals Xylem represents a group of cells in which some of them are actually dead when they mature. The Xylem is found in specific places of the plant. And the cells die. Now waterway down from the tips of the root will be carried through these functionally dead cells of the Xylem, these are the vesicle element cells. And the Tracheid’s is the other cell types. These are used to move water and minerals up to the shoot. Sclerenchyma cells are also dead cells and they support all the tubes of the Xylem. They are holding up these pipes. o Phloem : transports sugars dissolved in water Phloems also have the sclerenchyma cells that hold them up. The cells are still alive when they function. They move sugars where they are required in the plant. The phloem consists of a sieve-tube element, which is budded up to the companion cell. This sieve- tube element cannot do everything it self so the companion element controls the sieve- tube element. o We find those types of tissues everywhere. All those pipes are contained in the dermis. o Water is taken up in the root and is moved up to the shoot of the plant o The xylem is unidirectional with the water o Sugar can move in either direction. So the phloem is bidirectional. Ground tissue
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o Everything else is called ground tissue. o 3 different types of ground tissues. They are shown in the picture as yellow. o All non-epidermal, non-vascular tissue of the plant. o Three principal cell types: they are enchyla cells Parenchyma Thin-walled, live cells Perform most metabolic functions of plant o Photosynthesis These are found in the leaves of the plant.
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