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9.12 BIO - HIV Review Every single time the HIV virus goes...

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September 12, 2011 HIV Review Every single time the HIV virus goes through a life cycle it changes or mutates. After a while Helper T cells lose power, your body cannot respond to simple infections. Helper T cells are needed to replicate. While it’s replicating the disease can be spread from one person to another. The virus can replicate for 10 to 12 years before the person dies from a secondary infection. i.e. AIDS Onset figure Stage 1-Infection o Flue like symptoms when first infected. o Viruses go and attack other cells. o Your body’s T cells recognize the viruses. Stage 2-Asymptomatic o Plasma cells give off antibodies. o For about 8-12 years, the virus goes into an inactive stage and you don’t feel sick. Your helper T cells are keeping the virus low. Stage 3-Symptomatic o This is when you start to feel sick. o When your helper T cells start to crash- your immune system can no longer keep up with the virus. Stage 4-AIDS o When your body drops below 20% T cell population, this is when you are considered to have full blown AIDS. o Stages: 1.Infection 2.Asymptomatic 3.Symptomatic 4. AIDS ***Strategies for AIDS Treatment: Inhibit HIV fusion and entry Preventing HIV from finding the helper T cell A drug can inhibit from finding a host Enfuvirtide (a drug) and other drugs interfere with binding to CD4 receptors and entry to the cell by fusion. Inhibit reverse transcriptase Reverse transcription of the HIV genome can be disrupted by use of DNA nucleotide analogs that when incorporated, block further DNA synthesis. We can make drugs that can make tweeted nucleotides that will turn enzymes off. This stops the viral DNA from being copied. This stops viral DNA from being copied. Inhibit integrase
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Inhibitors of the HIV enzyme integrase prevent the incorporation of viral DNA into the host genome. Inhibit viral peptide processing HIV protease inhibitors block the activity of HIV enzymes that alter viral proteins and convert them to their active forms. Some drugs (like Amprenavir) inhibit viral peptide processing, preventing the maturation of viral proteins. Types of Exam Questions: -How do you get a virus? -How many people die from the flu each year? --How does HIV mutate so quickly Answer: reverse transcription __________________________________________________________________ Influenza (the flu) Highly contagious respiratory infection. The influenza virus usually enters the body through mucus membranes in the mouth, nose or eyes.
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