week 15

week 15 - FINALEXAMREVIEW 03/12/201115:40:00 November 18,...

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW 03/12/2011 15:40:00 November 18, 2011 Chapter 34 Nutrition and Digestion A nutritionally adequate animal diet satisfies three needs: Fuel (chemical energy) Organic raw materials for biosynthesis (especially carbon-based molecules) Essential nutrients (substances that the animal needs, but cannot synthesize from any precursors on its own) November 21, 2011 A nutritionally inadequate animal diet fails to satisfy the three basic needs we just covered. Undernourishment—insufficient calories (energy) Overnourishment—too many calories and too much stored fat. Malnourishment—a diet missing one or more essential nutrients Energy in nutrients is measured in Calories (kcal=energy to raise the temperature of 1 L of water 1 degree C) An average human body uses about 1,550 Calories/day. Principal categories of nutrients: Lipids—found in lipid membranes, etc.; including essential fatty acids. o 9 calories per gram (a principal energy source) Proteins—building blocks and enzymes; animals require 20 amino acids, including essential amino acids. o 4 calories per gram (usually a secondary energy source, since the breakdown of proteins produces urea, a potentially toxic compound) o eight essential amino acids that you can not make from scratch in your body. These eight you must actually eat these and have them in your diet. Carbohydrates—Carbon-based building blocks and energy o 4 calories per gram; can be a very quick energy source (e.g., glucose) Vitamins—essential organic molecules required in small quantities. o You can make Vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. If you tan you will produce less Vitamin D than someone who doesn’t tan. o DO NOT KNOW THE VITAMIN CHART FOR THE EXAM!!!!! Minerals—essential elements and inorganic molecules (similar to mineral macro- and micro-nutrients required by plants, but also including selenium, iodine, etc.) o You must consume these! You cannot make these in your body. o DO NOT KNOW MINERAL CHART FOR THE FINAL o www.choosemyplate.gov
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Want ask anything from website. DR. Pollock is overweight according to his BMI Human digestion 1.) Mouth; mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins. o Mechanical and chemical break down is 2 forms of digestion. o We have a mixture of teeth. We are an omnivore o In our mouth we have a tongue. Tongue manipulates food into mass and pushes it back to the pharynx. The tongue is a muscle. o Picture of human and parts (picture will be on the exam.) 2.) Pharynx connects the mouth and the esophagus. o Epiglottis covers trachea while directing food to esophagus. 3.) Esophagus muscular tube connecting mouth and stomach. o
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course BIO 1002 taught by Professor Hrinchevich during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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week 15 - FINALEXAMREVIEW 03/12/201115:40:00 November 18,...

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