week 15 - FINALEXAMREVIEW 15:40:00 Chapter 34 Nutrition and...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
FINAL EXAM REVIEW 03/12/2011 15:40:00 November 18, 2011 Chapter 34 Nutrition and Digestion A nutritionally adequate animal diet satisfies three needs: Fuel (chemical energy) Organic raw materials for biosynthesis (especially carbon-based molecules) Essential nutrients (substances that the animal needs, but cannot synthesize from any precursors on its own) November 21, 2011 A nutritionally inadequate animal diet fails to satisfy the three basic needs we just covered. Undernourishment—insufficient calories (energy) Overnourishment—too many calories and too much stored fat. Malnourishment—a diet missing one or more essential nutrients Energy in nutrients is measured in Calories (kcal=energy to raise the temperature of 1 L of water 1 degree C) An average human body uses about 1,550 Calories/day. Principal categories of nutrients: Lipids—found in lipid membranes, etc.; including essential fatty acids. o 9 calories per gram (a principal energy source) Proteins—building blocks and enzymes; animals require 20 amino acids, including essential amino acids. o 4 calories per gram (usually a secondary energy source, since the breakdown of proteins produces urea, a potentially toxic compound) o eight essential amino acids that you can not make from scratch in your body. These eight you must actually eat these and have them in your diet. Carbohydrates—Carbon-based building blocks and energy o 4 calories per gram; can be a very quick energy source (e.g., glucose) Vitamins—essential organic molecules required in small quantities. o You can make Vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. If you tan you will produce less Vitamin D than someone who doesn’t tan. o DO NOT KNOW THE VITAMIN CHART FOR THE EXAM!!!!! Minerals—essential elements and inorganic molecules (similar to mineral macro- and micro-nutrients required by plants, but also including selenium, iodine, etc.) o You must consume these! You cannot make these in your body. o DO NOT KNOW MINERAL CHART FOR THE FINAL o www.choosemyplate.gov
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Want ask anything from website. DR. Pollock is overweight according to his BMI Human digestion 1.) Mouth; mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins. o Mechanical and chemical break down is 2 forms of digestion. o We have a mixture of teeth. We are an omnivore o In our mouth we have a tongue. Tongue manipulates food into mass and pushes it back to the pharynx. The tongue is a muscle. o Picture of human and parts (picture will be on the exam.) 2.) Pharynx connects the mouth and the esophagus. o Epiglottis covers trachea while directing food to esophagus. 3.) Esophagus muscular tube connecting mouth and stomach. o Mucus further lubricates food, pushes food via peristalsis (sequential contractions of circular muscles) 4.) Stomach; expandable muscular sac o Functions: 1.) Storage chamber Stomach stapling or gastric bypass surgery o Staples/stiches close off part of stomach o Reduced to size of an egg o Portion of small intestine also bypassed to reduced nutrient absorption
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern