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week 5 notes - Week 5 notes Other biological entities o Not...

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Week 5 notes 9/19/11 Other biological entities o Not organisms Viruses Viroids Sampler and smaller Fragment of RNA with no protein coat o Hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes, avocadoes Smaller than viruses Doesn’t make proteins but they effect the plants to where the plants ca not make proteins Prions o Unusually infectious particles o Found in the brain and spinal fluid of the animal o No genome at all No RNA or DNA or single double stranded anything o A protein particle o Mad cow disease in cows and in humans it’s called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru A human can get this disease by once killing the animal if a person messes with its head or spine if the animal has mad cow then if those prions get on the meat then humans may get mad cow o Consist of a protein that is folded wrong and makes other proteins fold wrong It does this in a very non-specific way. When prions interfere with proteins then the proteins start to stick together and make a big blob Origin? o Proteins come from living things, originated as by products of living organisms All life on the planet is either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell types Prokaryotes: o BACTERIA and ARCHEA Domains o 8000 species described, may be 100-1000x that number o 1 st organisms to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago o Cell wall Semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached) gives bacteria shapes Shapes: bacilli (rod shaped), cocci (spherical), spirilla (spiral) Capsule and slim layers o Capsule: highly organized, firmly attached to cell wall o Slime layer: less organized, loosely attached to cell wall o Pilli: hair like structures on surface of bacteria which aid in attachment Helps anchor
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