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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Research What is Research?- Beginning a campaign is formative research- Ending a campaign is evaluative research- Questions to ask before research design: o Whats the problem? o Kind of information needed? o How will results be used? o Audience? o Who should do it? o How will data be analyzed/reported? o Timetable? o Budget? Ways to Use Research:- Achieve credibility: data to back up claims with clients and management, number are convincing to audiences- Identify/segment publics: what tactics do I use to get to the audiences? Easier to decide if I narrow audiences- Develop strategy- Test messages: done a lot in PR, testing an idea related to an issue or problem, testing phrase used in promotional activities- Inform management: let them know what were doing- Prevent crises- Monitor competition- Influence opinion- Generate publicity- Measure success Whats the value of research?- Research also provides discussion and debate of relevant topics within the academy- Ultimately, communication research helps practitioners save time, resources, and money- Ex. race and health communications: radio? TV? - Research should be theoretically based but also move practice ahead in a way that saves resources Research Categorization Schemes- PrimarySecondary (using already published research and applying it to a specific situation)- Formal (more scientific).Informal (often qualitative rather than quantitative, simply observing)- Exploratory (no idea what result will be, no theory or existing data to use to make predictions).Confirmatory (could have hypotheses that predict what Ill find)- Scientific (replicable, similar results within margin of error)Non-Scientific- Descriptive (25% though this)Analytical (predicts a certain behavior)- Qualitative.Quantitative Research Techniques- Archival: archives or secondary analysis of companys memos, etc.- Databases- Internet- Content analysis: quantitative, number of mentions, tone of content (positive/negative)- Interviews- Focus groups: ideally 8-12 people with moderator, typically last 90 minutes- Copy testing: like message testing, see how people respond Formal Primary Research- Non-scientific (qualitative) o Focus groups: more representational of target audience o Depth interviews: structured, 30 minutes to 2 hours, single purpose, experts, opinion leaders, know a lot about the subject o Participant observation Formal Primary Research- Scientific o Surveys and polls (self-selecting) o Experiments (control group, experimental groups, ex. salmonella and peter pan peanut butter) Population- The widest possible parameters of people whose opinions you wish to study Sample- Representative group of a population Sampling Methods- Non-probability sample not every member of the population has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample o Intercept: right place at right time (ex. shopping) o Convenience: kind of gets at the population you want (ex. pop=PRSA, go down to Convenience: kind of gets at the population you want (ex....
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course ADPR 3850 taught by Professor Lariscy during the Fall '06 term at University of Georgia Athens.
- Fall '06