CHAPTER 7—COMMUNICATION AND MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7—COMMUNICATION AND MEASUREMENT -...

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Unformatted text preview: Changesinaudienceattitudescanbeevaluatedthroughabaselineorbenchmark study,whichfocusesonmeasuringawarenessandopinionsbefore,during,andafter apublicrelationscampaign. Ultimately,publicrelationscampaignsareevaluatedbasedonhowtheyhelpan organizationachieveitsobjectivesthroughchangingaudiencebehavior,whetherit involvessales,fundraising,ortheelectionofacandidate. CHAPTER7--COMMUNICATIONANDMEASUREMENT WHATARETHEGOALSOFPUBLICRELATIONSCOMMUNICATION?P.134 Fivepossibleobjectivesofcommunicationaremessageexposure,accurate disseminationofthemessage,acceptanceofthemessage,attitudechange,and changeinovertbehavior. WHICHFACTORSINFLUENCEMESSAGERECEPTION,COMPREHENSION,RETENTION, ANDCREDIBILITY,ANDADOPTION?P.135 Successfulcommunicationinvolvesinteraction,orsharedexperience,becausethe messagemustbenotonlysentbutalsoreceived.Thelargertheaudience,the greaterthenumberofbarrierstocommunication. Communicatorsmusttailormessagestogetrecipients'attention.Messagesfor passiveaudiencesmustdemonstratestyleandcreativity,whereasmessagesforan audienceactivelyseekinginformationmustcontainmoresophisticatedcontent;an effectivemessagedescribesanobviousbenefit. Themostbasicelementnecessaryforunderstandingbetweencommunicatorand audienceisacommonlanguage.Publicrelationspractitionersmustconsidertheir audiencesandstyletheirlanguageappropriately,takingintoconsiderationliteracy levels,clarityandsimplicityoflanguage,andavoidanceofdiscriminatorylanguage. Keyvariablesinmessagebelievabilityincludesourcecredibility,context,andthe audience'spredispositions,especiallymembers'levelofinvolvement. Messagesareoftenrepeatedextensivelyinseveralways,throughavarietyof channels,toreachallmembersofthetargetaudience,helpthemrememberthe message,andenhancetheirlearning. Fivestepsinacceptanceofnewideasorproductsareawareness,interest, evaluation,trial,andadoption. Theadoptionprocessisaffectedbyrelativeadvantage,compatibility,complexity, trialability,andobservability. WHYISMEASUREMENTOFPUBLICRELATIONSPROGRAMEFFECTIVENESSIMPORTANT? P.143 Evaluationisthemeasurementofresultsagainstobjectives;itcanenhancefuture performanceandestablishwhetherthegoalsofmanagementbyobjectivehavebeen met. Criteriamustbesettoevaluatethelevelofsuccessinattainingtheestablished objectives. WHICHMETHODSAREUSEDTOMEASURETHEEFFECTIVENESSOFPUBLICRELATIONS PROGRAMS?P.145 Onthemostbasiclevel,practitionerscanmeasuremessagedistributionandmedia placements.Asecondlevelwouldentailmeasurementofaudienceawareness, comprehension,andretention.Themostadvancedlevelisthemeasurementof changesinattitudes,opinions,andbehaviors. Severalcriteriacanbeusedtomeasuremessageexposure,includingthe compilationofpressclippingsandradio/televisionmentions;mediaimpressions,or thepotentialaudiencereached;numberofhitsonawebsite;advertising equivalency;systematictrackingbyuseofcomputerdatabases;requestsfor additionalinformation;andaudienceattendanceatspecialevents. Monday--October10,2011 BottomLineValue 3levelsofmeasurement o 1--compilationofmessagedistribution&mediaplacements o 2--measurementofaudienceawareness,comprehension,&retentionof message Awarenessdoesn'tmealacceptance Awarenessisverydifficulttomeasure o 3--measurementofchangeinattitudes,opinions,&behaviors MassageExposure Mostwidelyusedtool o Mediaimpressions o HITSontheinternet Notaccurate Commonlyreferredtoas"Howidiotstrack..." o Advertisingequivalency Advertisingvs.publicity Advertising=paidplacement Notthesamevalueaspublicity o Systematictracking Cantellifit'sthesamepeoplevisitingorititsnewpeople o Requestand800numbers o Costperperson Inplaywithsuperbowlads Amountperpersonviewingadvs.amountofpeoplewatchingthead Audienceattendance Measurementof Audienceawareness o Surveyresearch o Dayafterrecall Measuresretentionlevel Audienceattitudes o Tomeasureattitudesbeforeandafteryouuseabaselineandabenchmark Audienceaction o Calltoaction PublicOpinion Public o Agroupofpeoplewhoshareacommonproblem o Yourpubliccanbeoneofthese3 1--latent Inactivepublic 2--active Attentivepublic 3--aware Awarebutfailtoact PayingAttentiontotheMessage Theoreticalperspectives o Mediauses&gratificationtheory Mediawantstoinformyouorcoerceyouintoaction o Audiencesegmentation Passiveandactiveaudiences Passive--gottodosomethingtogettheirattention Active--infoseekers UnderstandingtheMessage Effectiveuseoflanguage Writingforclarity Useofsymbolicacronyms&slogans Avoid o Jargon Phrasesonlycertaingroupsknow o Clichs&hypewords o Euphemisms Formofdoublespeak o Discriminatorylanguage TheMessage Believingit o Sourceofcredibility o Context o Involvement Idealisticvs.noidealistic Rememberingit o Repetition Studyshowswhomusthearsomethingatleast12timesbeforeyour abletorecallit Actingonit o Effectonrecipient Evaluation "E"intheRACEacronym o 4thandlaststepintheprocess Measurementofresultsagainsttheobjectivessetduringtheplanningphase Objectives o Mustbemeasurable Measurableobjectivesmustbeset/establishedpriortotheprogram Mustagreeoncriteriainordertodeterminehowitwillbeevaluated Asymmetric Justgetfeedbacktohaveit Chapter7 Wednesday--October5,2011 CHAPTER7--COMMUNICATIONANDMEASUREMENT Communication Whatwetendtosee o The"c"intheRACEacronym o 3rdstepintheprocess Executionphase Goalsofcommunication o Inform o Persuade o Motivate o Achievemutualunderstanding Vitiate o Howarewegoingtodoit Effectivecommunication o Perceivemessage o Processmessageandperception o Communicationtoolseffectiveandappropriateformessage Flyersetc. PublicRelationsPerspective 5thingstokeepinmind o 1--messageexposure Variousformatsusedtogetthemessageout o 2--accuratedisseminationofmessage o 3--acceptanceofmessage o 4--attitudechange o 5--changeonoverallbehavior Themessageyousendoutdictatestheresponseyoureceive Receivingthemessage Communicationmodel o Speaker Encoder o Listener Decoder o Loopprocess Speakermessagechannellistenerfeedback o Situation/interference 2waycommunication o Symmetrical&asymmetrical Symmetric Usefeedbacktbetterthemselves ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course LIBERAL AR 1101 taught by Professor Daniels during the Fall '11 term at Georgia Southern University .

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