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Lecture 4 - Lecture 4 CYTOSKELETON AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX...

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Lecture 4 CYTOSKELETON AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX CHAPTER 6 DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS ENERGY o WHAT IS IT o HOW CAN IT BE TRANSFORMED? o HOW IS IT MEASURED COUPLING ENERGETICALLY FAVORABLE REACTIONS TO UNFAVORABLE ONES ENZYMES o ENERY DIAGRAMS o INHIBITORS o REGULATION Cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix o Maintenance of Size/Shape o Motility o 2 different major types of structures Microtubules Maintenance of cell shape Organelle movements (dynein) Cell motility (flagella and cilia) Bigger 25 nm Microfilaments Maintenance of cell shape Muscle contraction (myosin) Cell motility (pseudopodia) Smaller 7 nm Microfilaments function in cellular motility o Motor proteins ATP powered Bound to microtubule/vesicle Changes shape causes movement of vesicles Myosin with microfilaments Microfilaments function in cellular motility o Along with myosin (motor protein) Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction OUTSIDE OF CELL Cell walls of plants o Are made of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and proteins o May have multiple layers
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o The sticky middle lamella contain pectin and holds cells together o Cellulose Strength o Pectin Glue holds cell together o Carbohydrates play big role Extracellular matrix (ECM) o Cell wall of animal cells o Carbohydrates play big role o Functions of the ECM Support Adhesion But can allow for movement COMUNICATION Intercellular Junctions o Intercellular junctions are required in multicellular organisms to Allow cells to form tissues Allow cells to transfer metabolites ( small molecules related to metabolism Allows cells to communicate Connections between plant cells called plasmodesmata o Plasmodesmata Are channels that perforate plant cell walls Connection between animal cells called o Tight junctions Prevent leakage o Desmosomes o Gap junctions Cytoplasmic communication channels o Which of the following cytoskeletal structures is responsible for muscle contraction? Intermediate filaments Microtubules Microfilaments Extracellular matrix Cilia o Cilia and flagella move due to the interaction of the cytoskeleton with which of the following? Actin pseudopodia Mitochondria Tubulin Motor proteins
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o Your intestine is lined with individual cells. No fluids leak between these cells from the gut into your body. Why? The intestine cells are fused together into one giant cell.
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