Exam1 review

Exam1 review - Topics to review when studying for BILD 3...

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Topics to review when studying for BILD 3 first exam, fall 2010 (Goodale section) Lecture 1.Introduction. - Animals as hosts of diseases that then spread to humans (e.g., SIV); animals as vectors of diseases that have several hosts (e.g., malaria). - Definition of ecology: study of the how organisms interact with living and nonliving environment. - The theory of virulence: if a virus is highly virulent, it must be transmitted quickly among hosts. Why is this an evolutionary theory? Lecture 2. Evolution. - Darwin’s life as a young gentleman in England, and big break on the Voyage of the Beagle. - Observations that Darwin made on Voyage of Beagle that got him thinking about evolution and natural selection (fossils, earthquakes, mockingbirds on Galapagos). - The theory of creationism: species independent of each other, fixed entities, creation recent. Contrast with theory of evolution. - Evidence that contradicts theory of creationism, as traditionally conceived: - fossil record and intermediary species in an evolutionary sequence. - evidence of ancient earth. - biogeography: species in regions seem similar to each other, especially those on island archipelagos. - homology: similarities between species best explained by common ancestry. - vestigial features: ancestral traits that no longer have function. - direct observations of change over time. Read summary of Endler’s experiment on p. 460. Definition of evolution: change in the frequencies of genes (alleles) over generations. Other things to know about: Charles Lyell, Eramus Darwin, phenotypic plasticity (idea that things with same genotype can look different in different environments). Lecture 3. Natural Selection. - Darwin’s wait for 20 years before publication of Origin : what factors were involved? - Compare and contrast artificial and natural selection. Know by heart the components of the theory of natural selection, either as we wrote it in class, on as explained on p. 458 of the textbook. - Understand how each of the components of natural selection was shown for a population of Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos islands. - Three outcomes of natural selection: stabilizing selection, directional selection and disruptive selection. Know an example of each. - Other mechanisms of evolution: - genetic drift. Change in gene frequencies over time due to chance events. Does not lead to adaptation (fit of an organism to its environment) as does natural selection. - the inheritance of acquired traits (LaMarck’s theory). Not known to occur in nature (although I did not explain in class some examples we are just learning about where a mother’s experience may change her developing embryo).
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Lecture 4. Politics of evolution. - “Social Darwinism”: the use of “survival of fittest” in a political /racial manner is not a
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course HILD 100 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at UCLA.

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Exam1 review - Topics to review when studying for BILD 3...

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