09.08.11 - Lecture 2. The segregation of mutant phenotypes...

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Lecture 2. The segregation of mutant phenotypes leads to the discovery of genes Reading: Chapt 2.: 27-50 The Father of Genetics: Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
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DNA is composed of deoxyribonucleotide- mono phosphates
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Concepts 1.Mutations arise through changes in the DNA (errors), and may result in changes in phenotype. 2.Using mutant phenotypes in peas, Mendel hypothesized 4 postulates (genetic laws) which result from chromosomal behavior at meiosis a) paired factors or diploidy b) dominance and recessivity c) random segregation of factors d) independent assortment of different factors 3.The behavior of chromosomes at meiosis explains all of Mendel’s postulates and the inheritance of single gene traits.
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Mutations: -Change in DNA sequence. -accelerated by mutagens -may or may not change phenotype Mutants: -differ from wild type
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Background clicker question: An allele is best described as: a. a highly related gene found at a different locus. b. the regulatory regions of a gene. c. a variation in the nucleotide sequence of a given gene that may or may not result in a detectable phenotype. d. a variation in the nucleotide sequence of a given gene that is always associated with a detectable phenotype. e. all of the above.
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How genes affect phenotype A: …CTA G GTTCTGC… a: …CTA A GTTCTGC…
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Genotype vs. phenotype Genotype: Combination of alleles at a gene or genes. AA or Aa Expression and manifestation of genotype.
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Genotype Phenotype Reverse genetics Reverse genetics Forward genetics Forward genetics
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Forward genetics (genetic dissection) Make crosses between strains Select two different phenotypes Count number and types of offspring Find sequence differences between alleles Identify molecular differences between individuals Determine inheritance pattern Use molecular tools to identify gene(s)
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Reverse genetics Starts with DNA or RNA of candidate gene Introduces specific change/disruption Determine effect on phenotype
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Genotypes dictate phenotypes Phenotypes controlled by single genes segregate according to Mendel’s postulates -
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Advantages of peas: 1.self-crossing 2.annual 3.hand pollination http://www.cartage.org.lb
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Phenotypes of the garden pea, Pisum sativum smooth vs. wrinkled peas yellow vs. green peas
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 305 taught by Professor Kumar during the Fall '11 term at University of Michigan.

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09.08.11 - Lecture 2. The segregation of mutant phenotypes...

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