10.20.2011 - Hear about the opportunities at the University...

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Unformatted text preview: Hear about the opportunities at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) presentation on Friday, October 20 th 1:00pm Kraus Natural Science Bldg, Rm 3028C Lecture 13. Theoretical and applied population and quantitative genetics Reading: Ch. 19, 710-722 What to bring to Exam II? 1. #2 pencil. 2. Calculator. 3. Your STUDENT ID # and DISCUSSION SECTION NUMBER. Important: If you are in Discussion Sections 2-11 your exam is in Nat Sci Aud. If you are in Discussion Sections 12-18 your exam is in Chem 1210 Review Session Sunday 1-3 pm Chemistry 1200 Outline Population genetics 1.Alleles arise from mutations, which may be beneficial, deleterious or neutral. 2.Natural selection works by modifying the relative fitness of individuals of different genotypes. 3.Real populations are not finite, they experience genetic drift and divergence in allele frequencies. 4.Haplotypes are regions of the genome that have not been shuffled by recombination- they show linkage disequilibrium 5.Small populations may suffer from inbreeding depression due to an excess of homozygotes and disease alleles. 6.Alleles and haplotypes can be used to infer the history of populations. Quantitative Genetics 1.Most traits show continuous variation that can be described in terms of degree of additive genetic variance . 2.Continuous traits can be associated with genotypes as quantitative trait loci . 3.Conversely, binary traits such as disease symptoms can be quantitatively associated with genotypes through association mapping . G6PDH variation in humans haplotypes I. Review of HWE. Alcohol flushing is caused by an allele in the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene that arose in Asia In South Korea, a population that meets all the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the ALDH2*504Lys dominant allele causing alcohol flushing is 21.6% (Li et al. 2009). What is the expected frequency of individuals that have the alcohol flushing phenotype (Asian glow). A. 0.047 B. 0.216 C. 0.339 D. 0.386 E. 0.432 Clicker Question 1 The ALDH2*2 flushing allele is associated with greater risk of cancer from acetaldehyde in blood and saliva How did it get established? I. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation However, mutations are random, and the mutation rate is usually low: 10-9 per nucleotide per year in mammalian nuclear genomes 10-5 per locus, per generation A a p g+1 = p g (1- u ) u Mutations have a spectrum of effects on individuals Mutations can be: beneficial - increases fitness of an individual deleterious - decreases fitness...
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10.20.2011 - Hear about the opportunities at the University...

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