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11.01.11 - Lecture 16 November 1 2011 Proteins and Their...

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Lecture 16 November 1, 2011 Proteins and Their Synthesis (Ch. 9)
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siRNA siRNA silences the gene that produces it. Shuts off genetic elements that insert into the genome (e.g., viruses, transposons)
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Argonaute 2 (slicer) cleaves target mRNA w/ siRNA:
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Cosuppression of transgene and endogenous gene:
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miRNAs siRNAs piRNAs (Discussion) Short RNAs typed based on their biogenesis:
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Protein Structure (Section 9.1) Please review and be familiar w/ peptide bonds and the levels of protein structure
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The Genetic Code: Codon – unit of DNA sequence that encodes an amino acid The genetic code is non-overlapping Codons are three nucleotides long Each codon specifies an amino acid
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Features of the genetic code: 1 . #codon/amino acid is variable (1 to 6) 2. Three stop codons (no tRNA) 3. Universal (few exceptions in ciliates and mitochondria)
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Mutation Phenotype - or + mutant - + wild type - - or + + mutant - - - wild type + + + wild type initial mutation initial mutation Suppressor mutation + + - Combining deletions and insertions Evidence for the triplet nature of the genetic code: … ATT ACT GTA TAT … … ATA CTG CTA TAT … Frameshift mutation and suppressor:
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