11.17.2011 - Lecture 21 November 17, 2011 Regulation of...

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Lecture 21 November 17, 2011 Regulation of Gene Expression In Eukaryotes (Ch. 12/13)
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Basal Transcription Machinery and Gene-Specific / Regulatory Transcription Factors Basal transcription machinery (e.g., GTFs, Pol II) required for transcription at all euk. promoters Gene-specific regulatory transcription factors modulate activity of basal transcription machinery at specific promoters (may be sets of promoters)
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Enhancers: Enhancers stimulate transcription, even though they act at a great distance from the promoters they control. Enhancers function through protein-protein interactions between activators bound to the enhancers, and general TFs and pol II bound to the promoter DNA “looping”
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Histone Deacetylation Can Turn Off Gene Transcription:
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Histone code: The information content stored in histone modifications. Genetic code: The information content stored in DNA sequence. More than 150 known histone modifications. DNA Posttranslational Histone Modifications:
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replacement Core histones H2A H2B H3 H4 Replace core histones with histone variants. e.g. CENP-A replaces H3 at centromere
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11.17.2011 - Lecture 21 November 17, 2011 Regulation of...

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