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chapt19LectureOutlines

chapt19LectureOutlines - Chapter 19 Cancer RISK versus...

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1 Chapter 19 Cancer RISK versus BENEFIT
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2 OUTLINE Introduction Normal Cells Regulation of Cell Division Tumor Suppressor Genes and Apoptosis Normal Cell Characteristics Cancer Cell Characteristics Angiogenesis Metastasis Causes of Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer
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3 Introduction The study of cancer is called? Oncology . The medical specialist for cancer? Oncologist . 1/3 Americans will deal with cancer in their lifetime! > 50% will survive their cancer. The critical factor is early detection . The earlier the cancer is detected, the more likely it can be effectively treated. With cancer, FEAR can kill you. . . . .
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4 Normal Cells With few exceptions , cells within a tissue adhere to one another and are joined by various junctions. Chemical signals between cells tell them whether they should be dividing or not dividing. Stimulatory growth factors. Inhibitory growth factors.
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5 Regulation of Cell Division Two sets of genes control cell division. Proto-oncogenes . Code for transcription factors that control gene expression. When mutated they become Oncogenes . “tumor genes”, “lump genes”. Tumor suppressor genes . Some are transcription factors that control the expression of proto-oncogenes, while others prevent molecules in the stimulatory pathway from working.
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6 Cell Cycle Regulation
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7 From the following article: Cancer: Drivers and passengers Daniel A. Haber and Jeff Settleman Nature 446, 145-146(8 March 2007)
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8 Tumor Suppressor Genes and Apoptosis Certain tumor suppressor genes ( TSG ) also control the occurrence of apoptosis . “Cell death”. Enzymes that carry out apoptosis are always present in a cell, but are held in check by inhibitors. Gene p53 brings about apoptosis when DNA is damaged. Apoptosis protects the body from cells with abnormal chromosomes or “run away” cell division.
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9 Function of p53
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10 Replicative Potential After cells become fully differentiated they can no longer divide. Chromosomes in human cells end with repetitive DNA sequences, telomeres . Telomeres get shorter after each cell cycle. Cells can undergo 60 – 70 divisions.
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11 Normal Cell Characteristics Genetically stable . Differentiate and adhere to other cells. Respond appropriately to growth signals. Undergo apoptosis when DNA repair fails. Undergo a limited number of cell cycles.
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12
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13 Cancer Cells Carcinogenesis - Development of cancer or “cancer beginnings”. Cancer is over 100 different diseases……… Cancer (“crab”) is a genetic disease requiring a number of mutations (at least ten), each propelling cells toward tumor development benign , malignant .
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