chapt20LectureOutlines

chapt20LectureOutlines - The Final Exam: (150 points) Lab 9

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1 The Final Exam : ( 150 points ) Lab 9 -ReproductiveSystems/Development Lab 10 –Abortion Lab 11 – Mankind and Biodiversity Lab 12 – Patterns of Genetic Inheritance (Ch. 20 in the text) DON’T FORGET – Lab Notebook check. ( 40 points )
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2 Chapter 20 Patterns of Genetic Inheritance Why do they share their distinctive traits? It’s all in the genes.
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3 Review Genotype and Phenotype One- and Two- Trait Inheritance Beyond Simple Inheritance Patterns Sex-Linked Inheritance
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4 Introduction Gene tics ? the study of heredity. . . . the study of how traits are passed from one generation to the next. Mendelian Genetics is our focus today. Gregor Mendel (1859) – pea plants – Principles (Laws) of Inheritance. . . . 1. Law of dominant and recessive 2. Law of unit characteristics (now called ‘genes’)
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5 3. Law of segregation 4. Law of independent assortment Before we examine these concepts, let us examine some of the genetic terms in Lab #12: Chromosomes , genes , and alleles . The other terms (definitions) found in the lab will be addressed as we examine this chapter (Ch. 20) in the text. You definitely want to know all of these terms for the exam.
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6 Genotype and Phenotype Genotype refers to an individual’s genes (genetic traits, represented by letters). Alleles are alternate forms of a gene. Dominant alleles are assigned uppercase letters, while recessive alleles are assigned lowercase letters. Homo zygous Dominant = EE. Homozygous Recessive = ee. Hetero zygous = Ee. Phenotype refers to an individual’s physical appearance (physical traits or characteristics)
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7 Genetic Inheritance
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8 One- and Two-Trait Inheritance Two types of cell division: Mitosis – normal cell division (‘duplication division’). Meiosis – reduction division (producing sex cells). Forming the Gametes . Reduction of chromosome number occurs when pairs of chromosomes separate as meiosis occurs. Spermato genesis , oo genesis .
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9 Gametogenesis
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10 One-Trait Cosses Punnett square ? A square with 4 squares within it. Is used to determine the phenotypic /genotypic ratios (the physical and genetic traits and their occurrence in the next generation) among the offspring when all possible sperm are given an equal chance to fertilize all possible eggs. If both parents are heterozygous, each child has a 25% chance of exhibiting the recessive phenotype.
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11 Heterozygous-Heterozygous Cross What phenotypes do you see?
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chapt20LectureOutlines - The Final Exam: (150 points) Lab 9

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