GasesCh5

GasesCh5 - Macroscale Chemistry Ch 5 Gases-transition to...

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Macroscale Chemistry Ch 5 Gases—transition to macroscale Ch 6-8 Equilibrium Ch 9 Thermochemistry Ch 10 Thermodynamics Ch 15 Kinetics Applications
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Gases Ch 5
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IMF and Gases
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11 Gaseous Elements
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Gases: Macroscopic Observation Gases fill the container into which they are placed Gases are compressible Gases mix completely and evenly when confined to the same container Gases have much lower densities than solids or liquids (g/L)
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Gases: Molecular View Fill space evenly and completely: randomly, fast moving particles Low density and compressibility: large distances between particles Idealized assumptions Gas particles have no volume Gas particles have no interaction, so identity of gas particle is inconsequential
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Gases: Historical View Molecular basis Kinetic energy of molecules much greater than intermolecular forces Historical studies precede the atom First we will look at non-molecular properties
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Torricelli (1608-1647) 1 atm = 760 torr
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Pressure Velocity = distance / time (m/s) Acceleration = change in velocity / time (m/s2) Force = mass x acceleration (kg m/s2 = N) Pressure is the force of the gas pressing on a given area P = F/A (N/m2 = Pa) Ability to cut with a knife doesn’t depend simply on amount of force
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Test the concept
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Pressure Pressure = Force/ Area Force = mass acceleration Acceleration = g = pull of gravity mass = ρ V = ρ h A where ρ =density of Hg, h= height of Hg, A = cross-sectional area of column Force = ρ h A g Pressure=( ρ h A g )/ A = ρ h g P  height and density If the density of mercury is 13.6g/ml, what is the height of a column of water under vacuum at atmospheric pressure? (76 cm =2.5 ft)
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Pressure Conversions 1 atm = 14.7 lb/in2 = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa
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Manometer
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Experimenting with Gases As P (h) increases V decreases Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
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Plot of Pressure vs Volume
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Boyle’s Law V =k/P
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Boyle’s Law P  1/V , when one sample is kept at constant temperature Acts as an “Ideal Gas”
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Ideal Gas Pressure is inversely proportional to volume
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GasesCh5 - Macroscale Chemistry Ch 5 Gases-transition to...

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