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S117LabLecturetheNineBottleproblem_001

S117LabLecturetheNineBottleproblem_001 - Qualitative...

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Qualitative analysis : The Nine Bottle problem Simple Rules for Solubility of Salts in water 1. Most nitrate salts (NO 3 ) are soluble. 2. Most salts of Na + , K + , and NH 4 + are soluble. 3. Most chloride salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are AgCl (silver chloride), PbCl 2 (lead chloride), and Hg 2 Cl 2 (mercury (I) chloride or mercurous chloride). 4. Most sulfate salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO 4 (barium sulfate), PbSO 4 (lead sulfate) , and CaSO 4 (calcium sulfate). 5. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. The important soluble hydroxides are NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH) 2 (marginally soluble). 6. Most sulfides (S 2 ), carbonate (CO 3 2 ) and phosphate (PO 4 3 ) salts are only slightly soluble. Example of a net ionic equation KCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) K + (aq) + Cl (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) AgCl(s) + K + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Cl (aq) + Ag + (aq) AgCl(s) Table 4.1 of Chemical Principles, S. Zumdahl
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In reality this is what one observes … On the molecular scale:
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More useful general solubility rules General Chemistry , Hill and Petrucci Compounds that are soluble : Nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates Group IA metal salts and ammonium salts Compounds that are mostly soluble : Chlorides, bromides, and iodides, except for those of Pb 2+ , Ag + , and Hg 2 2+ Sulfates except those of Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ (CaSO 4 is slightly soluble) Compounds that are mostly insoluble : Carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfides, except those for ammonium compounds and those of Group 1A metals. (The hydroxides and sulfides of Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ are slightly to moderately soluble.
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Sometimes, you need to consider all possible reactions Can’t be an ammonium ion compound as they are all soluble. Hint: Ammonia is a weak base.
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Acid base properties of salts A salt is a term for an ionic compound formed from the combination of an acid and a base.
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