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L100_Quiz4_ans

L100_Quiz4_ans - L100 Quiz#4 ANSWER KEY 1(a Explain the...

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L100 – Quiz #4 --- ANSWER KEY 1. (a) Explain the difference between analogous and homologous characters. (1pt) Analogous characters are characters that are similar due to common ecology pressures and not common descent. The similarities are superficial and not due to similarities in the underlying genes. Homologous characters are characters that are shared among individuals with a common line of descent. Species share the characters because their ancestors had it; differences are due to divergent evolution over time. (b) Which of the following sets of figures are analogous structures and which set homologous structures? (1pt) Analogous Homologous 2. Explain how the fossil record provides evidence for evolution (1pt). Fossils are formed as dead organisms are buried under sediment. Since the fossils are covered up as they die, and newer ones are laid down on top of already buried ones, the layers of fossil reflects a time sequence of once living organisms. If the fossils are examined, there is an obvious change in the distribution and types of organisms found at the various strata (layers of sediment). The changes in the morphological structures across the layers reflect changes in form and function over evolutionary time. It is
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