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Chapter-12-Handouts

Chapter-12-Handouts - Chapter 12 Electromagnetic Radiation...

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1 Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory o Electromagnetic Radiation o Quantum Theory o Particle in a Box o The Hydrogen Atom o Quantum Numbers o Orbitals o Many Electron Atoms o Periodic Trends 1 Big Idea: The structure of atoms must be explained using quantum mechanics, a theory in which the properties of particles and waves merge together. Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation: Consists of oscillating (time-varying)electric and magnetic fields that travel through space at 2.998 × 10 8 ? ? (c = speed of light) or just over 660 million mph. 2 Note: All forms of radiation transfer energy from one region of space into another. Examples of Electromagnetic Radiation: Visible light Radio Waves X-Rays Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength (λ): Is the peak-to-peak distance. Amplitude: Determines brightness of the radiation. Frequency (ν): The number of cycles per second ( 1 𝐻? = 1 1 ? ). 3 Note: Changing the wavelength changes the region of the spectrum (i.e. x-ray to visible). Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Electromagnetic Radiation 4 Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Quantum Theory If white light is passed through a prism, a continuous spectrum of light is found. However, when the light emitted by excited hydrogen atoms is passed through a prism the radiation is found to consist of a number of components or spectra lines. 5 Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Quantum Theory Black Body: An object that absorbs and emits all frequencies of radiation without favor. Heated Black Bodies 𝑻𝝀 ?𝒂𝒙 = ?. ???? 𝑰 ??? = ?. ?? × ?? −? 𝑾 ? ? ? ? 𝑻 ? 6 Note: λ max is the most prevalent wavelength not the longest wavelength.
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2 Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Quantum Theory Theory Scientists used classical physics arguments to derive an expression for the energy density (Rayleigh Jens Law). ????𝑔? ????𝑖?? ∝ 𝑇 ? 4 The Problem With Explaining Black Body Radiation Using Classical Mechanics Classical mechanics put no limits on minimum wavelength therefore at very small ? , ? would be a huge value even for low temperatures. 7 Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory Quantum Theory Max Plank: Proposed that the exchange of energy between matter and radiation occurs in quanta, or packets of energy. His central idea was that a charged particle oscillating at a frequency ? , can exchange energy with its surroundings by generating or absorbing electromagnetic radiation only in discrete packets of energy. 8 Quanta: Packet of energy (implies minimum energy that can be emitted). Charged particles oscillating at a frequency, ? , can only exchange energy with their surroundings in discrete packets of energy.
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