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7_Ch9_2 - Shape and Bonding 1 Determine Lewis structure 2...

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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 Shape and Bonding 1. Determine Lewis structure. 2. Use VSEPR to determine electron pair geometry . 3. Determine molecular geometry . 4. Is the molecule polar? Dipole moment μ = Q r To answer this, use knowledge of: Øඏ Molecular shape Øඏ Bond Polarity Determine Molecular Polarity 1
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 Sharing of electrons in bonds is not always equal Covalent bond identical atoms: N 2 Cl 2 H 2 Polar bond different atoms: + ί૿→ H ί૿ Cl δ + δ Bond type is determined by differences in electronegativity ( Δ EN). large difference: ionic Na + Cl 0.93 3.2 Δ EN = intermediate values: polar covalent H — Cl 2.2 3.2 Δ EN = no difference: covalent Cl — Cl approximate cutoff: Δ EN 2.0 ionic Δ EN < 2.0 covalent 2
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 BOND POLARITY AND DIPOLE MOMENTS One measure of real charges in molecules is dipole moment ( μ ) For a diatomic molecule : μ = Q r | ί૿ r ί૿ | unit = debye (D) = 3.33 x10 30 C-m ί૿ί૿ί૿ +Q Q For two charges (+1 and 1) separated by 1 Å μ = 4.79 D Units of Q = 1.6 x10 19 C = charge of an electron 3
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Mary J. Bojan
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