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7_Ch9_3 - Covalent Bonding What is covalent bonding...

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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 1 Covalent Bonding What is covalent bonding? Covalent Bonds: overlap of orbitals σ -bond π -bond Molecular Orbitals Hybrid Orbital Formation Shapes of Hybrid Orbitals Hybrid orbitals and Multiple Bonds resonance structures
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 2 Molecular Orbitals Lewis structures : accounting for bonding and lone-pair electrons (where are the electrons?) VSEPR: Electron-pair structure, spatial distribution of electrons (3D) How are bonds made? We know electron distribution in atoms: atomic orbitals: ( s , p , d ) What is the electron distribution in molecules? Two models: Valence Bond Theory Valence orbitals on one atom overlap with valence orbitals on another atom: this overlap of orbitals is a covalent bond . Molecular Orbital Theory Covered in Chem 112
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 3 Covalent Bonding H + H H 2 H 2 molecule Covalent bonding = overlap of atomic orbitals to form a new orbital H (1s) H (1s)
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 4 H + H H 2 Two forces operating: balance of forces a bond length (0.74 Å for H 2 ) Why does a covalent bond form?
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 5 Bond Types σ -bond results from electron density is π -bond results from electron density is pp Two p-orbitals Examples: s-s s-p
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 6 Imagine how Bonding in CH 4 might occur Using only unpaired subshell electrons: Expect: The molecule would not have an octet on carbon. Carbon ground-state: (1 s 2 )2 s 2 2 p 2 1s of H 2p of C
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Mary J. Bojan Chem 110 7 Propose the following process for bonding in CH 4 : 1. Promote electrons on C 2. hybridization Four atomic orbitals mix to form four hybrid orbitals 2s + 3 × 2 p 4 × sp 3
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Mary J. Bojan
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7_Ch9_3 - Covalent Bonding What is covalent bonding...

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