Ch. 02

Ch. 02 - 1/15/2010 Chapter 02: Properties of Materials 2.1...

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1/15/2010 1 Chapter 02: Properties of Materials 2.1 Introduction Successful products begin with the appropriate materials Materials rarely come in the right shape, size, and quantity for use Parts and components are produced by subjecting engineering materials to one or more processes Manufacturing requires knowledge in several areas Figure 2-1 The manufacturing relationships among structure, properties, processing, and performance.
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1/15/2010 2 Requirements for Design Material requirements must be determined Strength Rigidity Resistance to fracture Ability to withstand vibrations or impacts Weight Electrical properties Appearance Ability to operate under temperature extremes Corrosion resistance Metallic and Nonmetallic Materials Metallic materials Iron, steel, copper, aluminum, magnesium, etc. General properties Luster, high thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity, ductile Nonmetallic materials Wood, brick, concrete, glass, rubber, plastic, etc. General properties Weaker, less ductile, less dense
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1/15/2010 3 Metallic and Nonmetallic Materials Metals have historically been the more important of the two groups Recently, advanced ceramics, composite materials, and engineered plastics have become increasingly important If both a metal and nonmetal are capable for a certain product, cost is often the deciding factor Other factors that are considered: Product lifetime Environmental impact Energy requirements Recyclability Physical and Mechanical Properties Physical properties: Density, melting point, optical properties, thermal properties, electrical properties, magnetic properties Mechanical properties: A property that dictates how a material responds to applied loads and forces Determined through specified testing It is important to take the testing methodology
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1/15/2010 4 Stress and Strain Strain is the distortion or deformation of a material from a force or a load Stress is the force or the load being transmitted through the material’s cross sectional area Stress and strain can occur as tensile, compressive or shear Figure 2-2 Tension loading and the resultant elongation. Tension, Compression, Shear Loading Figure 2-3 Examples of tension, compression, and shear loading, and their response.
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5 2.2 Static Properties Constant force on a material is called a static force Strength of a material is important Elastic stretching or deflection of a material is related to Young’s Modulus A number of tests have been developed to determine these static properties of materials Static Testing Tensile test Uniaxial test Generates an engineering stress-strain curve Compression test Difficult to test compression Similar results to that of the tensile testing Figure 2-5b Schematic of the load frame showing how upward motion of the darkened yoke can produce tension or compression with respect to the stationary (white) crosspiece. (Courtesy of Satec Systems, Inc., Grove City, PA.)
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Ch. 02 - 1/15/2010 Chapter 02: Properties of Materials 2.1...

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