This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Beyond Mapper and Reducer Partitioner, Combiner, Hadoop Parameters and more Rozemary Scarlat September 13, 2011 Data @low with multiple reducers Partitioner the map tasks partition their output, each creating one partition for each reduce task many keys per partition, but all records for a key are in a single partition default partitioner: HashPartitioner - hashes a record's key to determine which partition the record belongs in another partitioner: TotalOrderPartitioner creates a total order by reading split points from an externally generated source The partitioning can be controlled by a [email protected] partitioning function: Don't forget to set the partitioner class: job.setPartitionerClass(OurPartitioner.class);! Useful information about partitioners: - Hadoop book Total Sort (pg. 237); Multiple Outputs (pg. 244); - http://chasebradford.wordpress.com/2010/12/12/reusable-total- order-sorting-in-hadoop/ - http://philippeadjiman.com/blog/2009/12/20/hadoop-tutorial- series-issue-2-getting-started-with-customized-partitioning/ (Note: uses the old API!) Partitioner example Combiner The combiner receives as input all data emitted by the mapper instances on a given node Its output is sent to the Reducers (instead of the mappers' output). Hadoop does not guarantee how many times it will call the combiner for a particular map output record => calling the combiner for 0, 1 or many times should result in the same output of the reducer Generally, the combiner is called as the sort/merge result is written to disk. The combiner must: - be side-effect free - have the same input and output key types and the same input and output value types Combiner example Parameters and more Cluster-level parameters (e.g. HDFS block size) [email protected] parameters (e.g. number of reducers, map output buffer size) - [email protected] - Important for job performance - Map-side/Reduce-side/Task-environment Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-5 from the book - Full list of mapreduce paramteres with their default values: http://hadoop.apache.org/common/docs/current/mapred- default.html [email protected] parameters - Used to pass information from driver (main) to mapper/ reducer. - Help to make your mapper/reducer more generic Also, built-in parameters managed by Hadoop that cannot be changed, but can be read - For example, the path to the current input that can be used in joining datasets will be read with: FileSplit split = (FileSplit)context.getInputSplit();! String inputFile = split.getPath().toString(); Counters built-in (Table 8.1 from the book) and user- [email protected] (e.g. count the number of missing records and the distribution of temperature quality codes in the NCDC weather data set) MapReduceTypes you already know some (eg. setMapOutputKeyClass()), but there are more Table 7-1 from the book Identity Mapper/Reducer no processing of the data (output == input) Why do we need map/reduce function without any logic in them? Most often for sorting More generally, when you only want to use the basic functionality provided by Hadoop (e.g. sorting/grouping) More on sorting at page 237 from the book MapReduce Library Classes - for commonly used functions (e.g. InverseMapper used to swap keys and values) (Table 8-2 in the book) implementing Tool interface - support of generic command-line options - the handling of standard command-line options will be done using ToolRunner.run(Tool, String) and the application will only handle its custom arguments - most used generic command-line options: -conf <configuration file> -D <property=value> ! How to determine the number of splits? If a @ile is large enough and splitable, it will be splited into multiple pieces (split size = block size) If a @ile is non-splitable, only one split. If a @ile is small (smaller than a block), one split for @ile, unless... CombineFileInputFormat Merge multiple small @iles into one split, which will be processed by one mapper Save mapper slots. Reduce the overhead Other options to handle small @iles? hadoop fs -getmerge src dest ~ ...
View Full Document
This document was uploaded on 01/17/2012.
- Summer '09