5 - SOC372 Study Guide-Necessary preconditions for...

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SOC372 Study Guide -Necessary preconditions for stratification Social differentiation: a situation in which people have different individual qualities and social statuses that are socially meaningful o ascribed status: a status in which people are placed at birth, due to circumstances beyond their control (e.g. age, race, ethnicity) o achieved status: a status obtained by people because of merit, because they live up to certain ideals, or because they follow certain achievement rules (e.g. jobs, education level) Social inequality: the condition whereby people have unequal access to valued resources, services, and positions in society (e.g. woman takes man’s last name in marriage institution, women jobs pay less than male jobs) o the condition whereby access is tied to the different qualities and statuses described above -Social status honor or prestige attached to one’s position in society ascribed status: a status in which people are placed at birth, due to circumstances beyond their control achieved status: a status obtained by people because of merit, because they live up to certain ideals, or because they follow certain achievement rules -Systems of stratification over time Hunter-gatherer o highly mobile o small o sharing, communal o no surplus o gender (women, child raising) o catalyst for change = agriculture Neolithic revolution o higher carrying capacity - expansion o population growth o surplus - emergence of economy o changes in gender roles o specialization (new needs, available people to fill those needs) Late agricultural o technologies o feudalism (more conflict, ownership (land) vs. tenant farms, inter-society feuds) o enclosure movement (to enclose communal grazing land) changed economic grounds pushes people from land into cities wage labor emerges, which supports merchant class o catalyst for change = factories Industrial capitalism
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o economic rights o more liberal - individual sovereignty/rights o political systems -Social mobility describes things over duration of time the individual or group movement with a social structure Types of mobility o can be vertical (move up in to higher status - promotion) o can be horizontal (move laterally within same class range) o can be intra-generational (change of social status over a single life time) o can be inter-generational (across generations; is defined as changes in social status that occur from the parents’ to the children’s generation) Likelihood of mobility in different stratification systems Interpretation of mobility table Status attainment model of social mobility o what influences the status individuals are able to obtain? aspirations (what you set out to do) e.g. family (model after yourself) or peers (who you associate with) expectations/obligations opportunities (setting up a good network) family background individual career paths context industry dynamics educational level -Interpreting the GINI coefficient
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