Chapter 1 Complete (1)

Chapter 1 Complete (1) - Lecture 2 Measurements and...

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Lecture 2: Measurements and Scientific Notation • Goals: Be familiar with the base units and abbreviations for the metric system, write numbers using scientific notation and be able to use prefixes to change base units to larger or smaller units • Outline (Timberlake Chapter 1.1-1.2, 1.5) : Units of Measurement (1.1) Scientific Notation (1.2) Prefixes and Equalities (1.5) • Problems for Extra Practice: 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 1.9, 1.35, 1.37, 1.39, 1.41
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Chemistry and Measurements • Measurements made on a daily basis – Weight – Cooking – Putting gas in your car • Measurements an essential part of health careers – Temperature, height, weight – Blood and urine glucose, pH, urea and protein
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Stating a Measurement In every measurement, a number is followed by a unit . Observe the following examples of measurements: Number and Unit 35 m 0.25 L 225 lb
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Units Listed on Labels
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The SI System Scientists recognized that a standard system of units was needed if measurements were to be useful Two major systems English Metric In 1960, an international agreement set up a system of units called the International System (SI) Based on the metric system and units derived from the metric system related decimal systems based on 10
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Measurements - Length Length – Uses the unit meter (m) in both the SI and metric systems 1 meter = 39.4 inches – Measured with a meter stick – centimeter (cm) is a smaller unit of length 1 inch = 2.54 cm – A dime is 1 mm thick. – A quarter is 2.5 cm in diameter. – The average height of an adult male is 1.8 m.
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Measurements - Volume Volume – amount of space a substance occupies – uses the unit liter (L) in the metric system 1 L = 1.06 qt – uses the unit cubic meter (m 3 ) in the SI system – is measured using a graduated cylinder – milliliter (mL) more convenient for measuring smaller quantities – A 12 oz can of soda has a volume of about 360 mL.
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Measurements - Mass Mass – measure of the quantity of material it contains – uses the unit gram (g) in the metric system 454 g = 1 pound – uses the unit kilogram (kg) in the SI system 2.2 pounds = 1 kg – A balance is used to measure mass – Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull on an object – A nickel has a mass of about 5 g. – A 120 lb person has a mass of about 55 kg.
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Measurements - Temperature Temperature – tells us how hot or cold an object is – uses the unit Celsius degree (°C) in the metric system – uses the unit Kelvin (K) in the SI system
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Measurements - Time Time – uses the unit second (s) in both the metric and SI systems. – is based on an atomic clock that uses a frequency emitted by cesium atoms
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Units in the Metric System In the metric and SI systems, one unit is used for each type of measurement: Measurement Metric (abbr.) SI (abbr.) Length meter (m) meter (m) Volume liter (L) cubic meter (m 3 ) Mass gram (g) kilogram (kg) Temperature Celsius ( C) Kelvin (K) Time second (s) second (s) All other units are derived from those listed in the SI system.
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Chapter 1 Complete (1) - Lecture 2 Measurements and...

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