Chapter 8 Complete - Lecture 24: Solutions Goals: Identify...

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Lecture 24: Solutions Goals: Identify the solute and solvent in a solution. Identify solutes as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Outline (Timberlake 7.9, 8.1-8.2): ± Partial Pressures (7.9) ± Solutions (8.1) ± Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes (8.2) Problems for Extra Practice: 8.1, 8.5, 8.7, 8.9, 8.11, 8.13, 8.15, 8.17, 8.19
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Solutions: Solute and Solvent Solutions • are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances • consist of a solvent and one or more solutes
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Solutes • spread evenly throughout the solution • cannot be separated by filtration • can be separated by evaporation • are not visible but can give a color to the solution Nature of Solutes in Solutions
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Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions • Solutes • Compounds extracted from coffee grounds. • Solvents • Water • Solution • Morning coffee
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Examples of Solutions • The solute and solvent in a solution can be a solid, liquid, and/or a gas.
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Identify the solute in each of the following solutions: A. 2 g sugar (1) and 100 mL water (2) B. 60.0 mL of ethyl alcohol (1) and 30.0 mL of methyl alcohol (2) C. 55.0 mL water (1) and 1.50 g NaCl (2) D. Air: 200 mL O 2 (1) and 800 mL N 2 (2) Learning Check
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Water Water • is the most common solvent • is a polar molecule • forms hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and the oxygen atom in a different water molecule
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Formation of a Solution Na + and Cl ions • on the surface of a NaCl crystal are attracted to polar water molecules • are hydrated in solution by many H 2 O molecules surrounding each ion
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When NaCl( s ) dissolves in water, the reaction can be written as H 2 O NaCl( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) solid separation of ions Equations for Solution Formation
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Solid LiCl is added to water. It dissolves because: A. The Li + ions are attracted to the 1) oxygen atom ( δ - ) of water. 2) hydrogen atom ( + ) of water. B. The Cl ions are attracted to the 1) oxygen atom ( ) of water. 2) hydrogen atom ( + ) of water. Learning Check
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Two substances form a solution • when there is an attraction between the particles of the solute and solvent • when a polar solvent (such as water) dissolves polar solutes (such as sugar) and/or ionic solutes (such as NaCl) • when a nonpolar solvent such as hexane (C 6 H 14 ) dissolves nonpolar solutes such as oil or grease Like Dissolves Like
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Water and a Polar Solute
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Like Dissolves Like Solvents Solutes Water (polar) Ni(NO 3 ) 2 CH 2 Cl 2 (nonpolar) (polar) I 2 (nonpolar)
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water? Why or why not? 1) Na 2 SO 4 2) gasoline (nonpolar) 3) I 2 4) HCl Most polar and ionic solutes dissolve in water because water is a polar solvent. Learning Check
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Chapter 8 Complete - Lecture 24: Solutions Goals: Identify...

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